Studies - PreTerm Delivery / Premature Birth / Prematurity Complications

Abortion-Premature Delivery Link (50 Published Studies Bibliography, 3/2003)

The March of Dimes has announced a major fund raising effort to understand and battle premature deliveries.

March of Dimes medical director Dr. Nancy Green told Time magazine that there has been a 27 percent rise in premature births over the last few decades. (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030210-418559,00.html)

At least 50 published studies have shown significantly higher risk of premature birth and low birth weight deliveries among women with a history of abortion.(1-50)

One of the best, a Danish record based study (1), found the risk doubled after just one abortion. Multiple abortions increase the risk even more.

A doubling of risk among an estimated one-fourth of delivering women who have a prior history of abortion would result in a 25 percent rise overall. Other risk factors such as drinking, smoking, and drug use are also elevated by a history of abortion.

According to the March of Dimes, "In 2000, hospital charges for 23,000 prematurity-related infant stays totaled $1.2 billion. The average charge was $58,000 per baby, compared to $4,300 for a typical newborn stay." (http://www.marchofdimes.com/aboutus/791_6775.asp)

 Treatment of these children through employer health plans is estimated at $4.7 billion per year. One fifth of these costs may be is attributable to extra cases of prematurity arising from abortion-related morbidity.


 

   

Premature birth is the leading cause of neonatal death and is related to increased risk of cerebral palsy, vision and hearing loss, retardation and other lifelong health problems.

The March of Dimes encourages prenatal screening for birth defects that can only be "treated" by abortion yet claims that they are neutral.

 

50 Significant Studies of Abortion/Prematurity Risk

March 2003

[50 studies that are at least 95% confident of increased
pre-term birth and/or low birth weight risk from previous
induced abortions; this list, in all probability, is NOT a complete
list of all such studies]:

 1 Zhou W, Sorenson HT, Olsen J. Induced Abortion
   and Subsequent Pregnancy Duration. Obstetrics &
   Gynecology 1999;94:948-953
 2 Berkowitz GS. An Epidemiologic Study of Preterm
   Delivery. American J Epidemiology 1981;113:81-92

 3 Lang JM, Lieberman E, Cohen A.  A  Comparison
   of Risk Factors for Preterm Labor and Term
   Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth. Epidemiology
   1996;7:369-376

 4 Lieberman E, Ryan KJ, Monson RR, Schoenbaum SC.
   Risk Factors Accounting For Racial Differences
   in the rate of premature birth. NEJM 1987;317:
   743-748

 5*Hillier SL, Nugent RP, Eschenbach DA, Krohn MA,
   et al. Association Between Bacterial Vaginosis
   And Preterm Delivery Of A Low-Birth-Weight
   Infant. NEJM 1995;333:1737-1742

 6 Schoenbaum LS, Monson RR. No association between
   coffee consumption and adverse outcomes of pregnancy.
   NEJM 1982;306:141-145

 7 Mueller-Heubach E, Guzick DS. Evaluation of
   risk scoring in a preterm birth prevention
   study of indigent patients. Am J Obstetrics
   & Gyn  1989;160:829-837

 8 Shiono PH, Lebanoff MA.  Ethnic  Differences
   and  Very Preterm Delivery. Am J Public Health
   1986;76:1317-1321

 9 Pantelakis SN, Papadimitriou GC, Doxiadis SA.
   Influence of induced and spontaneous abortions
   on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Amer
   J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;116:799-805

10 Lumley J. The association between prior spon-
   taneous abortion, prior induced abortion and
   preterm birth in first singleton births.
   Prenat Neonat Med 1998;3:21-24.

11 Van Der Slikke JW, Treffers PE. Influence of
   induced abortion on gestational  duration in
   subsequent pregnancies. BMJ 1978;1:270-272
   [>95% confident of preterm risk for gestation
   less than 32 weeks]

12 Richardson JA, Dixon G. Effect of legal termin-
   ation on subsequent pregnancy. British Med J
   1976;1:1303-1304

13 Pickering RM, Deeks JJ. Risks of Delivery during
   20th to the 36th Week of Gestation. Intl. J
   Epidemiology 1991;20:456-466

14 Koller O, Eikhom SN. Late Sequelae of Induced
   Abortion in Primigravidae. Acta Obstet Gynecol
   Scand 1977;56:311-317

15 Papaevangelou G, Vrettos AS, Papadatos D, Alexiou
   C. The Effect of Spontaneous and Induced Abortion
 &n

bsp; on Prematurity and Birthweight. The J Obstetrics
   and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. May
   1973;80:418-422

16 Bognar Z, Czeizel A.  Mortality  and  Morbidity
   Associated with Legal Abortions in Hungary, 1960-
   1973. AJPH 1976;66:568-575

17 Martius JA, Steck T, Oehler MK, Wulf K-H. Risk
   factors associated with preterm (<37+0 weeks) and
   early preterm (<32+0 weeks): univariate and multi-
   variate analysis of 106 345 singleton births from
   1994 statewide perinatal survey of Bavaria.
   European J Obstetrics & Gynecology Reproductive
   Biology 1998;80:183-189

18 Vasso L-K, Chryssa T-B, Golding J. Previous
   obstetric history and subsequent preterm delivery
   in Greece. European J Obstetrics & Gynecology
   Reproductive Biology   1990;37:99-109

19*Ancel P-V, Saurel-Cubizolles M-J, Renzo GCD,
   Papiernik E, Breart G. Very and moderate preterm
   births: are the risk factors different? British
   J Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999;106:1162-1170

20 Lumley J. The epidemiology of preterm birth.
   Bailliere's Clin Obstet Gynecology. 1993;7(3):
   477-498

21*Michielutte R, Ernest JM, Moore ML, Meis PJ,
   Sharp PC, Wells HB, Buescher PA. A Comparison of
   Risk Assessment Models for Term and Preterm Low
   Birthweight. Preventive Medicine 1992;21:98-109

22 Grindel B, Lubinski H, Voigt M. Induced abortion
   in primigravidae and subsequent pregnancy, with
   particular attention of underweight. Zentralbl
   Gynaekol 1979;101:1009-1114

23 Kreibich H, Ludwig A. Early and late complications
   of abortion in juvenile primigravidae (including
   recommended measures). Z Aerztl Fortbild (Jena)
   1980;74:311-316

24 Zwahr C, Voigt M, Kunz L, et al. Relationships
   between interruption abortion, and premature birth
   and low birth weight. Zentrabl Gynaekol 1980;102:
   738-747

25 Pickering RM, Forbes J. Risk of preterm delivery
   and small-for-gestational age infants following
   abortion: a population study. British J Obstet-
   rics and Gynecology 1985;92:1106-1112

26 Obel E, et al. Pregnancy Complications Following
   Legally Induced Abortion With Special Reference to
   Abortion Technique. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
   1979;58:147-152

27 Levin A, Schoenbaum S, Monson R, Stubblefield P,
   Ryan K. Association of Abortion With Subsequent
   Pregnancy Loss. JAMA 1980;243(24):2495-2499

28 Legrillo V. Quickenton P, Therriault GD, et al.
   Effect of induced abortion on subsequent reproductive
   function. Final report to NICHD. Albany, NY: New
   York State Health Department, 1980.

29 World Health Organization Task Force on the Sequelae
   of Abortion. Gestation, birthweight and spontaneous
   abortion. Lancet 1979;1:142-145.

30 Ratten G et al. Effect of Abortion on Maturity of
   Subsequent Pregnancy. Med J Australia June 1979:
   479-480

31 Roht LH, Aoyama H, Leinen GE, et al. The association
   of multiple induced abortions with subsequent
   prematurity and spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet
   Gynaecol Jpn 1976;23:140-145

32 Harlap S, Davies AM. Late sequelae of induced abortion:
   Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor. Amer
   J Epidemiology  1975;102:219-224

33 Seidman DS, Ever-Hadani P, Slater PE, Harlap S, et al.
   Child-bearing after induced abortion: reassessment of
   risk. J Epidemiology Community Health 1988;42:294-298

34 Henriet L, Kaminski M. Impact of induced abortions on
   subsequent pregnancy outcome: the 1995 French national
   perinatal survey. British J Obstetrics Gynaecology
   2001;108:1036-1042

35 Miltenyi K. On the effects of induced abortion. Demografia
   1964;7:73-87

36 Drac P, Nekvasilova Z. Premature termination of pregnancy
   after previous interruption of pregnancy. Cesk Gynekol
   1970;35:332-333

37 Mocsary P, Csapo AI. Effect of menstrual induction on
   prematurity rate. Lancet 1978;1:1159-1160

38 Furusawa Y, Koya Y. The Influence of artificial abortion
   on delivery. In: Koya Y, ed. Harmful effects of induced
   abortion.  Tokyo: Family Planning Federation of Japan,
   1966:74-83

39 Lerner RC, Varma AO. Prospective study of the outcome of
   pregnancy subsequent to previous induced abortion. Final
   report, Contract no. (N01-HD-62803). New York: Downstate
   Medical Center, SUNY, January 1981.

40 Lean TH, Hogue CJR, Wood J. Low birth weight after induced
   abortion in Singapore, Presented at the 105th Annual Meeting
   of the Americal Public Health Association, Washington DC,
   Oct. 31, 1977

41 Barsy G, Sarkany J.  Impact of induced abortion on the birth
   rate and infant mortality. Demografia 1963;6:427-467

42 Meiri

k O, Bergstrom R. Outcome of delivery subsequent to
   vacuum aspiration abortion in nulliparous women.  Acta
   Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61:415-429

43*Zhang J, Savitz DA. Preterm Birth Subtypes among Blacks and
   Whites. Epidemiology 1992;3:428-433

44 Slater PE, Davies AM, Harlap S. The Effect of Abortion Method
   on the Outcome of Subsequent Pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1981;28:
   123-128

45 World Health Organization. Special Programme of Research,
   Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction:
   Seventh Annual Report, Geneva, Nov. 1978.

46 Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Perinatalishalazons.
   Budapest: Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 1972

47 Czeizel A, Bognar Z, Tusnady G, et al. Changes in mean birth
   weight and proportion of low-weight births in Hungary. Br J
   Prev Soc Med  1970;24:146-153

48 Lumley J. Very low birth-weight (less than 1500g) and previous
   induced abortion: Victoria 1982-1983. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynecol
   1986;26:268-272
+49 Puyenbroek J, Stolte L. The relationship between spontaneous
   and induced abortions and the occurrence of second-trimester
   abortion in subsequent pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol
   Reprod Biol  1983;14:299-309 [this is the only study in
   this complete list that uses second-trimester abortion
   as a surrogate for PTB]

50 Khalil AK, El-Amrawy SM, Ibrahim AG, et al. Pattern of growth
   and development of premature children at the age of two and
   three years in Alexandria, Egypt; Eastern Mediterranean Health
   Journal  1995;1(2):186-193

The list of 50 studies showing abortion's relationship to premature birth and low birth rate deliveries
[compiled by Brent Rooney] [http://www.vcn.bc.ca/~whatsup/APB-Major.html].
[The Elliot Institute News, Email Publication, Vol.2, No. 3 
Feb. 6, 2003
http://www.AfterAbortion.Info]
……………………………………………………

* studies that included spontaneous and induced abortions but did not report PB/LBW risk separately for each