Human Development

Human Fetuses Found to Have Memories (2009)

Human Fetuses Found to Have Memories, Say Researchers: They weigh less than 3 pounds, usually, and are perhaps 15 inches long. But they can remember. The unborn have memories, according to medical researchers who used sound and vibration stimulation, combined with sonography, to reveal that the human fetus displays short-term memory from at least 30 weeks gestation – or about two months before they are born. "In addition, results indicated that 34-week-old fetuses are able to store information and retrieve it four weeks later," said the research, which was released Wednesday. Scientists from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Maastricht University Medical Centre and the University Medical Centre St. Radboud, both in the Netherlands, based their findings on a study of 100 healthy pregnant women and their fetuses with the help of some gentle but precise sensory stimulation. On five occasions during the last eight weeks of their pregnancies, the women received a series of one-second buzzes on their bellies with a "fetal vibroacoustic stimulator," a hand-held diagnostic device used to gauge an unborn baby's heart rate and general well-being. The baby's responses – primarily eye, mouth and body movements – were closely monitored over the weeks with ultrasound imaging to gauge "fetal learning" patterns. The researchers found that the babies acclimated themselves to the sounds and vibrations to the point that they no longer bothered to respond – a process known as "habituation." "The stimulus is then accepted as 'safe' " by the babies, the study said. The team also found that the tiny test subjects actually improved these skills as they grew older, with those who...

Leading Researcher Confirms Unborn Children Can Feel Pain at 20 Weeks

As people in India join a national abortion debate following an appeals court’s rejection of a couple’s request for a late-term abortion, the issue of fetal pain is coming into play. One aspect of the debate revolves around whether or not unborn children have the capacity to feel pain. Kanwaljeet Anand, a pediatrician and fetal pain specialist at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, is considered the top American expert on the subject. Anand has conducted research on the subject for over two decades and he also happens to be a native Indian. Anand told the Telegraph of India newspaper that scientists have seen how operations and other procedures involving unborn children in the womb have shown clear evidence that a baby feels pain before birth. “The evidence is undeniable,” he told the newspaper. “Even a 20-week foetus is likely to feel pain, and excruciating pain.” He told the newspaper he thinks unborn children even have the ability to feel more intense pain, including in an abortion, than newborn babies, children or even adults. “This is because pain transmission pathways have developed in the foetus, but not the pain modulation pathways that are not effective until six weeks after birth,” he explained. “There is more than enough evidence now. But no one is as blind as someone who doesn’t want to see,” he said, adding that not all doctors have been convinced by his studies. [6 August 08, Ertelt, www.LifeNews.com #4386, Bombay,...

Infertility Treatment Explained (2007)

Renee Mirkes has good news for couples who suffer from infertility: treatment is available that upholds their dignity and the dignity of the children they desire. That treatment, called NaPro TECHNOLOGY, was the main topic of discussion at an October 07 Health Care Ethics Day in IL. The gathering featured two keynote talks by Mirkes, who is director of the Center for NaProEthics in Omaha, NE. About 90 people — including physicians, administrators, nurses, pastoral care workers, pastors and teachers — attended the ethics seminar. The event also included small group and panel discussions on ethical questions pertaining to infertility treatment. The [speakers stressed that the] foundation of medical ethics must be the inherent dignity of the human person. In her talks, Mirkes presented a detailed clinical explanation of Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) and contrasted it with NPT. NaPro TECHNOLOGY, or NPT, was developed by Dr. Thomas Hilgers. More than 1,000 physicians have been trained in Dr. Hilgers’ system, which incorporates the Creighton Model of natural family planning to help couples chart the wife’s monthly cycle. "It’s much more than family planning," said Paul Kortz, president of the American Academy of FertilityCare Professionals. Kortz teaches the Creighton Model and NPT through the FertilityCare Center in Peoria. Building on the Creighton Model, NPT has been developed to become a whole system of naturally helping couples conceive and to treat fertility issues, said Kortz. Charting the woman’s cycle helps to diagnose causes of infertility and identifies when the wife will be most likely to conceive, he said. [TCP, 4Nov20-7, Morton,...

Researchers Explain Why Having Baby Reduces Breast Cancer Chances (CR, 10/07)

Researchers at a cancer center in Seattle have confirmed what previous studies have shown: women who bear children have a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. They say fetal cells “transplanted” to the mother before birth are a source of this protective effect. That's something that abortion denies.  Scientists at the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center presented their results in the 1 October 2007 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.  They studied a concept called fetal microchimerism, which is the ability of cells from a growing unborn baby to take up long-term residence in the mother's body.   Vijayakrishna K. Gadi, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor at the University of Washington and research associate at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, discussed the findings in a statement LifeNews.com obtained.   "Our research found that these persisting fetal cells may be giving a woman an edge against developing breast cancer,” he said. “This experiment of nature is all the more fascinating because for years doctors treated a number of different cancers by transplanting cells from one person to another."   Fetal microchimerism has been implicated as a mechanism of autoimmune disease but it may also benefit mothers by putting the immune system on alert for malignant cells to destroy. The researchers recruited 82 women, 35 of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Approximately two-thirds of the women studied have had children, and more than half of the participants had given birth to at least one son. That's important because the scientists examined whether any of the women had the...

Pregnancy Problem Issues

Prenatal Partners For Life– http://www.prenatalpartnersforlife.org/ Trends in Folic Acid Supplement Intake Among Women of Reproductive Age QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rates* for 10 Leading Causes of Infant Death The Obstetric Fistula Fallacy Majority of Pregnancy-Related Deaths Are Cardiac-Related Oral Bacteria May Travel to Amniotic Sac, Increasing Chance of Pregnancy-Related Complications… Prenatal Partners For Life http://www.prenatalpartnersforlife.org/ Prenatal Partners for Life is a group of concerned parents (most of whom have or had a special needs child), medical professionals, legal professionals and clergy whose aim is to support, inform and encourage expectant or new parents. We offer support by connecting parents facing an adverse diagnosis (for example, Downs Syndrome, Trisomy 18, Anacephaly) with other parents who have had the same diagnosis. We have many resources such as adoption agencies with clients waiting to adopt and love a special needs child should a parent feel they could not care for them. We provide bereavement support including financial aid for funeral costs and markers should a beloved child not survive long after birth. We also provide education and support for those in the medical community who are charged with the care of these "extra special" needs children. We believe each child is a special gift … and there must be an alternative to abortion and infanticide.   TRENDS IN FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENT INTAKE AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE. Daily intake of 400 µg of folic acid before conception can reduce by approximately 80% the risk for having an infant with a neural tube defect (NTD) such as spina bifida or anencephaly (1). Although other risk factors for NTDs exist, such as diabetes, obesity, and...

Surgical Advances for Unborn Patients Prove Successful (updated Oct 2011)

SURGERY FOR THE UNBORN PROVES IMPRESSIVELY SUCCESSFUL Babies with a severe congenital spinal cord defect (called a “myelomeningocoele”) are at high risk of developing permanent brain and spinal cord damage, if the defect is not repaired soon after birth. Recently a consortium of world-renowned pediatric hospital centers have investigated whether performing surgery on a baby, while he or she is still in the womb, would be safe. These surgeons found that prenatal surgery (surgery while the baby is still in the womb) is not only as safe as waiting until right after birth, but it actually results in better outcomes! Babies with myelomeningocoeles often need to have ‘shunts’ placed, in order to release pressurized water which is accumulating around their brain (hydrocephalus). Those babies, who had undergone surgery before they were born, later needed to have a shunt placed less often. Three years later (30 months after surgery), the babies who had undergone surgery in the womb were functioning at a higher level, with better motor skills and less need for leg braces, than were those babies whose surgery had been delayed until after they were born.  And this improvement occurred despite the fact that the babies who underwent surgery before they were born happened to have, on the whole, more serious spinal defects than those who had their surgery after they were born. These improved results, from performing surgery before birth, were so striking that the investigators stopped the study early, in order to share the good news. This surgery is very serious, whether performed before or after birth.  Two babies died in each group.  Babies who underwent...

Pregnancy Resource

I Know I Am Loved by Dolores Mize and photographer Angela Talentino is “one of the most touching publications available celebrating the birth of a new baby”. This 48-page book which includes and involves the father of the baby, lovingly depicts “the joy of welcoming a new baby into the family”. There are also places to record the baby’s birthday & stats, and a page for parents to write their own thoughts to the newborn. Contact Life Cycle Books, www.lifecyclebooks.com/item_detail.asp?PRODUCT_ID=2229P. [Life Issues Inst., 7/07,...

Caesarean Delivery, USA, 2005 (4/07)

Percentage of All Live Births by Caesarean Delivery. Preliminary data for 2005 indicate that 30.2% of all live births in the United States were caesarean deliveries, marking the highest U.S. total cesarean rate ever reported. Since 1996, the total caesarean rate has increased by 46%, driven by both an increase in the percentage of all women having a first caesarean and a decline in the percentage of women delivering vaginally after a previous caesarean. Caesarean rates vary considerably among states but tend to be lower in the western mountain states and upper Midwest region and higher in the Southeast and East regions. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, unpublished data. Additional information is available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/births.htm. [20April07, QuickStats, MMWR Weekly,  56(15);373, National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2005,...

No Reason to Delay Pregnancy After Breast Cancer Diagnosis (BMJ, 1/07)

New research from scientists in Australia questions the old adage that a woman who contracts breast cancer should wait at least two years before becoming pregnant. The study shows that, as is the case when a woman considers having an abortion, a pregnancy has a protective effect... Publishing their data in the most recent issue of the British Medical Journal, the researchers concluded that the usual recommendation to delay pregnancy for two years after the diagnosis of breast cancer is not valid. Although the basis for the two year wait recommendation for women with localized breast cancer who have completed therapy is unclear the scientists set out to validate the assumption. They examined 2539 women aged 15-44 in Western Australia who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1982 and 2000. They reported that 123 (5%) of these women subsequently became pregnant. Sixty-two (54%) of these women conceived in less than 2 years from the diagnosis of breast cancer. They ultimately found that pregnancy was associated with an improved survival. The five year overall survival was 92% and 10-year overall survival was 86%, and there were no major differences in outcome between early and late pregnancies. The researchers concluded that women who are not receiving chemotherapy can begin to conceive as early as six months after diagnosis without compromising outcomes or pregnancies.   Other studies have shown that there are two breast cancer risks are associated with an abortion. The first includes the loss of protection a full-term pregnancy afford women in terms of the beneficial effects it has on a woman's breast. The second concerns the additional risk the abortion...

Perinatal Resources for "Difficult" Pregnancies

Perinatal Hospice: A Gift of Time Perinatal hospice is for families who wish to continue their pregnancies with babies who likely will die before or shortly after birth because of a terminal prenatal diagnosis. www.perinatalhospice.org/ www.perinatalhospice.org/A_Gift_of_Time.html [excerpted from Perinatal Hospice website:] If you are here because of a prenatal diagnosis that indicates your baby likely will die before or after birth, we are so sorry. Perhaps you are considering continuing your pregnancy and embracing whatever time you may be able to have with your baby, even if that time is only before birth, while your baby is cradled safely inside of you. Please know that support is available (see the links on this site) and that you are not alone. Parents who have traveled this path before you have found that it can be a beautiful, profoundly meaningful, and healing journey.   "You matter to the last moment of your life, and we will do all we can not only to help you die peacefully, but also to live until you die.” -Cicely Saunders, founder of the modern hospice movement “Waiting with Gabriel: A Story of Cherishing a Baby’s Brief Life,” by Amy Kuebelbeck is a first-person account of continuing a pregnancy with a terminal diagnosis. Many hospitals and pregnancy clinics are now recommending this book for patients in this situation, and it may be useful for physicians as well as for their patients. http://waitingwithgabriel.com http://perinatalhospice.org ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ http://www.prolifemfm.org/ [excerpted from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine website:]  Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) is a subspecialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology dealing with all matters that can affect the health of a mother or fetus from before conception to...

Donation of Baby's Umbilical Cord Blood Can Save Lives

Babies' First Act May Resolve Stem-Cell Moral Dilemma Dr. Gerry Sotomayor, an obstetrician with an office in Tucker, established the Babies for Life Foundation in March02. The mission of the foundation is "to unite, educate and inform the public" regarding stem cell research, particularly by facilitating the donation of umbilical cord blood which contains usable stem cells. They're striking chords of hope for people around the world in need of stem cell transplants. And they're calling it a baby's first act of charity, as with parents' permission blood extracted from a newborn's umbilical cord is donated to a public blood bank. And what's so precious about umbilical cord blood, usually thrown out as medical waste? It's a rich source of stem cells that can be used as an effective alternative to bone marrow transplants, and for medical research. Babies for Life Foundation is believed to be the first organization in the nation that facilitates umbilical cord donations not only in Georgia but in other states as well. "It occurred to us that in reality this was a very large act of charity that started with the parents on behalf of the baby. We encourage our donors to put in the baby's book that this is their first act of charity to the world. Teach them young," said Dr. Gerry Sotomayor, who oversees this donation process. "People need to know that their baby can save lives now, and that public cord blood banks are free, available and convenient. It just makes sense from both a faith and moral perspective, as well as a medical one, to donate your child's blood...

Prenatal Screening May not be as Accurate as Once Thought (11/06)

PRENATAL SCREENING NOT SO ACCURATE AS ONCE THOUGHT. “Normal” Children Killed as “Defective”? Scientists conclude there is really no such thing as “normal” in genetic inheritance. New research has found that more genetic differences exist among people than previous research had indicated. In 2000 the international team of scientists working on the Human Genome project said that there was only a miniscule percentage of difference between people. At about the same time, genetic screening was introduced as a common feature of prenatal care and as part of artificial procreation in IVF facilities. The new research shows, however, that this screening is not as accurate as previously thought. In the new study, 270 volunteers from different countries were tested and the researchers found that the genetic continuance from parents to child is not as straightforward as previously thought. In fact, the conclusion seems to be that there is really no such thing as “normal” in genetic inheritance. This means that screens for genetic abnormality are unrealizable without a reliable standard of “normal.” The report, published in the journal Nature suggests that prenatal screening may have incorrectly diagnosed genetic abnormalities as defects. In the period since the growth of genetic screening, in both IVF and natural conception, fewer children are being allowed to live to birth because of suspected genetic defects such as Down’s syndrome. With abortion being available in many jurisdictions for any reason or no reason, a genetic test result with any kind of abnormality is often a death sentence for the child.  The Globe and Mail quotes Steve Scherer, a senior scientist at the Hospital for Sick Children...

Easing the Pain of Tiniest Babies (2003)

Despite clear evidence that newborns feel pain, most premature infants are given no analgesics in hospitals, even though they are regularly subjected to painful procedures, a new study reports. Writing in the current Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, researchers said that only about a third of infants studied had received appropriate pain control while they were in a neonatal intensive care unit. The researchers, led by Dr. Dick Tibboel of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, found that on average the 151 infants studied underwent more than 14 procedures  each day. These included having tubes placed down their throats, needles stuck into their heels to draw blood, catheters inserted in veins and frequent suctioning of the nose and throat. A co-author of the study, Dr. Kanwaljeet S. Anand of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, said that if anything the situation was worse in the United States. The pain, he said, is unnecessary. "There are a number of things that could be done," he said, "but in order to get those started up, one has to acknowledge that pain occurs frequently." Some doctors shy away from giving narcotic painkillers to babies because debate remains about the possible addictive properties. The study, however, recommends that doctors consider using them more often for infants who need respiratory support. Doctors can also take simple steps to reduce pain, Dr. Anand said, including giving topical anesthetics or even concentrated sucrose solutions. [Despite this acknowledgement of pain in preemies, abortion supporters continue to insist that any discussion of fetal pain in abortion-even partial birth abortion-is irrelevant. N V. RN; http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/18/health/18TREA.html NYT: 18November03, By ERIC NAGOURNEY...

Medication May Help to Protect Premature Babies (2003)

Preliminary data suggests that magnesium sulfate, given intravenously to women about to deliver extremely premature babies, helps reduce brain damage and death among the infants, researchers report. Children born before 30 weeks' gestation, about two months early, run a higher risk of death and brain problems, including cerebral palsy, said the Australian report, being published in The Journal of the American Medical Association. Dr. Caroline Crowther, of the University of Adelaide, and colleagues said they tested the drug — the same one found in Epsom salts — at 16 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. The subjects were 1,062 women about to deliver very premature babies. The program ran from 1996 to 2000 with a follow-up of surviving children at 2 years of age. Women in the study were given either magnesium sulfate or a placebo. Children of the women given the drug had 17 percent less risk of death and cerebral palsy, the study concluded. The protective mechanism is not clear, the study said, but it appears that the drug may help prevent bleeding in the premature infant brain, a problem that can cause cerebral palsy. The researchers said there appeared to be no serious harmful effects for the women or their children. Still, they said further study was needed before the drug could be given. "Widespread use of prenatal magnesium sulfate as a neuroprotective agent cannot be recommended solely on the basis of the current study," they wrote. The study was financed by Australian health organizations. In an editorial carried in the same issue, Dr. Jon Tyson and Dr. Larry Gilstrap, of the University of Texas Medical...

Infertility May be Passed to Daughters (ASRM, 2006)

WOMEN RISK PASSING INFERTILITY TO CHILDREN IF THEY DELAY MOTHERHOOD Pregnant pause: women who delay motherhood until after age 30 risk bequeathing infertility to their daughters. A new study suggests older mothers may bequeath a devastating legacy by passing on biological flaws that will make it more difficult for their own daughters to get pregnant. Dramatic findings from a US study of almost 80 women undergoing fertility treatment shows those who failed to conceive had older mothers than those who succeeded. These mothers had a shorter 'window of fertility' between giving birth to their daughters and hitting the menopause. For the first time, researchers have calculated the 'age' of eggs at the time of conception and linked it with the fertility potential of the daughters that were born subsequently. The findings indicate that older eggs may carry inbuilt defects that only become apparent when female children attempt to get pregnant. Dr Peter Nagy, a leading fertility specialist at Reproductive Biology Associates, a fertility clinic in Atlanta, said postponing childbirth had implications for women that could cascade down the generations. "For every year that a woman delays childbirth, it becomes more difficult for her daughters. Women will be asking whether their decision not only affects their own chances of getting pregnant but the chances for their daughters. "Today we see a lot of women delaying motherhood and there could be consequences in 20 or 30 years' time, we could see more fertility problems in the future." He said it was well known that older women had trouble getting pregnant because they had "aged eggs" but it had never been shown...

Donating Umbilical Cord Blood for its Stem Cells: A Journal of How To Make a Difference

I was thrilled beyond words when my pregnancy test was positive.  My first thoughts were to tell all my family:  my six year old daughter first, I wanted her to tell her daddy; then our two year old and then the rest of our family.  My second thought – I want to donate the cord blood.  And then all the millions of other thoughts that come when you find out that you are expecting. I had read about storing the umbilical cord blood when I was expecting my second daughter… I had seen advertisements in baby magazines about private cord blood storage.  These companies charge a fee to store the umbilical cord blood so you can have access to the cord blood if you or a family member ever needs to use the blood for treatment.  I had heard through the pro-life group at my church that studies where having great results with stem cells from umbilical cord blood and I knew there must be a way for me to donate the cord blood.  I asked the director of our pro-life group for some suggestions and she recommended checking with the National Marrow Registry (www.marrow.org), searching the web, and then the Better Business Bureau. I began by searching the web for public cord blood banks.  Public banks store the cord blood without charge; if other people need the blood and it is a match, some of the cord blood is provided to them. More than likely, enough will still be available for your own family if the need should arise. I kept running across the name Cryobanks International even...

What the Unborn Sense in the Womb

Interview With Dr. Carlo Bellieni   During its gestation the fetus is "already a member of the family, and company for the mother even before being born," says neonatologist Carlo Bellieni.   Dr. Bellieni [Department of Neonatal Intensive Therapy of the University Polyclinic Santa Maria Le Scotte of Siena] talked about his research on life-before-birth for his latest book "L'Alba dell'Io" (Dawn of the I), published by Società Editrice Fiorentina.   Q: Until the 1980s it was thought that the maternal uterus was a sort of strongbox for the fetus. What has changed since then?   Bellieni: Very much. Today we know that the fetus is a pluri-sensorial being whose senses enter into action with a pre-ordained sequence: first, tactility is manifested; then the chemical; the sense of balance; hearing; and finally sight.   The early development of the senses in the uterus has a double function: that of forming the central nervous system, providing stimuli which interact with the growth of groups of neurons, directing it on a physiological path, and of introducing the unborn to the exterior world — bringing about a kind of learning in the uterus.   Q: Is it true that the senses enter into action precociously before birth?   Bellieni: Already in the eighth week after conception the receivers of touch are present in the fetus in the area of the mouth, which later are extended throughout the whole surface of the body in a few months. But it is around the 22nd to 24th week when the connections will be ready with the cerebral cortex. The fetus responds to the stimuli that come...

Benefits of Water Aerobics During Pregnancy

Lower back pain during pregnancy can interfere with work, daily activities and sleep. More than one-third of women suffer from lower back pain while pregnant; in 10% – 15% of those cases, the pain develops into a chronic condition. A recent study in the Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing looked at 390 healthy pregnant women to find that water aerobics, as compared to land-based exercise, reduced pregnancy-related lower back pain by 50 percent and sick leave by 100 percent. This relief in lower back pain can lead to better mobility and facilitate ease of movement. This research also suggests that aquatic exercise has preferred benefits because the environment lessens the strain and resistance on the muscles of the lower back. The study also looked at the effect of exercise — water-based or land-based — on pregnant women with pelvic pain and found little effect on either. [Family Foundations, Sept/Oct...

Womb Transplants May be Possible Within 2 Years

London-based researchers, working with medical teams in New York and Budapest, have developed a technique for providing a transplanted womb with a reliable blood supply. Women born without a uterus or who have undergone an emergency hysterectomy would be among those to benefit from the procedure. The transplant would be temporary, doctors being reluctant to continue giving a patient drugs to help the body to fight rejection of the womb. That could leave the woman two to three years to conceive and carry a baby or babies before the womb was removed. Maintaining a reliable blood supply has been seen as crucial before the technique — which has worked in animals — can be successfully performed on humans. The first uterus transplant, carried out on a Saudi woman in 2000, failed when a blood vessel supplying the organ developed a clot. Richard Smith, a consultant gynaecologist at Hammersmith Hospital in West London, said: “By getting to a place where we seem to have a reliable method of giving the uterus a blood supply, that takes us a whole heap closer to being able to provide this for humans.” Mr Smith and his team, who have been working on the project for eight years, hope that before long they will be able to transplant a womb from a deceased donor into a woman who is unable to conceive. He said: “I think that two years probably is realistic.” Researchers in Sweden as well as Saudi Arabia are also working on womb transplants. Mr Smith said that about 30 women had expressed an interest in the procedure. There are thought be...

Maternal Smoking Linked with Tourette's Syndrome, O-C Disorder (AJP, 6/06)

Maternal smoking linked with severe tic disorder Women who smoke during pregnancy appear to have a very strong risk of having a child with severe symptoms of Tourette's syndrome and the risk of having obsessive-compulsive disorder is also increased in these children… Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder that develops in childhood or adolescence in which patients have involuntary tics involving sudden movements or vocalizations that are rapidly repeated. The symptoms usually occur several times a day, every day or intermittently and are usually mild, but can be severe. The condition is believed be to associated with many genetic and environmental factors, Dr. Carol A. Mathews and her associates note. While few studies have examined the role of environmental factors, there are suggestions that incidents before or just after birth, as well as the mother's prenatal habits, effect the development of the disorder, its severity, and the risk of having another neurologic condition. Mathews, from the University of California in San Francisco, and her team hypothesized that reductions in oxygen in the womb, a known effect of smoking, could increase the risk of developing Tourette's syndrome in those with a genetic susceptibility. To test this theory, the research team evaluated members of three groups of people with the syndrome, which included 53 individuals from Costa Rica, 99 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and 28 who had a sibling with the syndrome. The subjects' ages ranged from 3 to 59 years, but 60 percent were younger than 14 when they were interviewed. The investigators report in the American Journal of Psychiatry that the average tic severity score was 38.6 of...