STDs – Definitions / History / Statistics / Studies

Fact Sheet: Gonorrhea – Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

Gonorrhea is a highly contagious sexually transmitted bacterial infection, sometimes referred to as the ‘clap’. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s latest tracking suggests that resistance went down between 2011 and 2013 to the antibiotic treatment cefixime for treating gonorrhea but it has started to climb back up in 2014. However, cefixime isn’t typically the first drug of choice for treating gonorrhea infections. The CDC’s most recent guidelines for gonorrhea treatment, issued in 2012, recommend only using cefixime when the preferred option — ceftriaxone-based combination therapy — isn’t available. However, this increase in resistance is of concern and indicates a need for ongoing vigilance in efficacy studies. Transmission Any sexually active person can get gonorrhea through unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Gonorrhea spreads through semen or vaginal fluids during unprotected sexual contact, heterosexual or homosexual, with an infected partner including touching an infected body part with fingers. Gonorrhea can be passed from a mother to her baby at birth and most commonly affects the baby’s eyes. The infection is not spread from simple kissing, sharing towels, toilet seats, etc. The incubation period is 1-14 days. Symptoms Most women with gonorrhea have no symptoms, and when they do the symptoms are often mild and may be mistaken as a bladder or vaginal infection. However, they are at risk for developing serious complications if untreated. Symptoms can include: Painful or burning sensation during urination Increase in vaginal discharge; strong smelling, may be thin and watery or thick and yellow/green Vaginal bleeding between periods Possibly some low abdominal or pelvic tenderness/pain, sometimes with nausea Men may also show no...

CDC: STDs Among U.S. Youth in 2000

Of the estimated 18.9 million new STD cases in 2000, 9.1 million (48%-almost half) were among 15- to 24-year-olds. Year 2000 statistics for the most common STDs: HIV (est.) Total infections – 40,000 15 – 24 age group – 20,000 (50% of total)… Chlamydia Total reported – 702,09315 – 24 age group – 439,041 (74% of total) Genital Herpes (est.)Total infections – 1.6 million 15 – 24 age group – 640,000 (40% of total) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (est.) Total infections – 6.2 million15 – 24 age group – 4.6 million(74% of total) Gonorrhea (est) Total infections – 718,000 15 – 24 age group – 431,000 (60% of total) Hepatitis B (est.) Total infections – 81,000  15 – 24 age group – 15,000 (18.5% of total) Syphilis Total reported – 15,449  15 – 24 age group – 3,399 (22% of total) Trichomoniasis (est.) Total infections – 7.4 million 15 – 24 age group – 1.9 million (25% of total) [CDC, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2000, Atlanta, CDC, 2001; CitizenLink...

The Facts about Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections

How many STIs are there and what are their names? The number of STIs (sexually transmitted infections) will vary depending on what is counted as an STI and whether sexually transmissible infections are also counted. The Medical Institute uses a list of STIs that is adapted from chapter headings in a standard STI textbook (usually referred to by the name of its primary editor, KK Holmes). This list, which appears below in alphabetical order, has 29 different infections. Bacterial: 1 bacterial vaginosis 2 campylobacteriosis 3 chancroid 4 chlamydia 5 Donovanosis 6 gonorrhea 7 lymphogranuloma venereum 8 mycoplasmas, genital 9 salmonellosis 10 syphilis 11 treponematoses, endemic Ectoparasitic: 12 lice, pubic 13 scabies Fungal: 14 candidiasis, vulvovaginal Protozoal: 15 amebiasis 16 cryptosporidium 17 giardiasis 18 trichomoniasis Viral: 19 cytomegalovirus 20 Epstein Barr virus 21 hepatitis A 22 hepatitis B 23 hepatitis C 24 hepatitis D 25 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 & HSV-2) 26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 27 human papillomavirus (HPV) 28 human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) 29 molluscum contagiosum Reference: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardh P, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 1999:vi-vii. (chapter headings). [www.medinstitute.org] How common are STIs? The United States has an epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Over 70 million Americans currently have an STI.[1] 19 million new cases occur each year. Half of these are in people under 25.[2,3] What causes STIs? STIs can be caused by bacteria (eg, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis), viruses (eg, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, herpes, HPV), or parasites (trichomoniasis). Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common viral STI.[1,2] How...

STD/STI Statistics > Fast Facts (ASHA)

Estimating how many STD cases occur is not a simple or straightforward task. First, most STDs can be "silent," causing no noticeable symptoms. These asymptomatic infections can be diagnosed only through testing. Unfortunately, routine screening programs are not widespread, and social stigma and lack of public awareness concerning STDs often inhibits frank discussion between health care providers and patients about STD risk and the need for testing. [ASHA. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? December 1998]   More than half of all people will have an STD at some point in their lifetime. [1] The estimated total number of people living in the US with a viral STD is over 65 million. [2] Every year, there are at least 15 million new cases of STDs, some of which are curable. [2,3] More than $8 billion is spent each year to diagnose and treat STDs and their complications. This figure does not include HIV. [4] In a national survey of US physicians, fewer than one-third routinely screened patients for STDs. [5] Less than half of adults ages 18 to 44 have ever been tested for an STD other than HIV/AIDS. Each year, one in four teens contracts an STD. [6] One in two sexually active persons will contact an STD by age 25. [7] About half of all new STDs in 2000 occurred among youth ages 15 to 24. [8] The total estimated costs of these nine million new cases of these STDs was $6.5 billion, with HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) accounting for 90% of the total burden. [9] Of the STDs that...

STD State of the Nation: 2005 (ASHA)

Challenges Facing STD Prevention in Youth The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that overall incidence of STDs have increased dramatically in recent years. Of particular concern are the increases among those between the ages of 15 and 24. A paper published in February 2004 by researchers at the CDC and Family Health International estimates that nearly half of the nation’s new STD cases occur each year among adolescents and young adults (1). According to their estimates, in the year 2000, 9.1 million cases of STDs occurred in sexually active Americans in this 15-24 age group. In particular, human papillomavirus (HPV), trichomoniasis, and chlamydia were and continue to be the most prevalent—causing 88% of the new STD cases in those between the ages of 15 and 24. In a corresponding article, the associated lifetime medical costs were tallied for an estimated $6.5 billion bill from these infections (2). In recent years, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among adolescents has become a serious public health issue. Although this problem has been widely acknowledged in the health care community, the public has a limited understanding of this growing epidemic and of public health strategies that might bring it under control. Fast Facts  One in two sexually active youth will contract an STD by age 25. Half of all new HIV infections occur among adolescents. Almost half of high school students nationwide and about 62% of students in the twelfth-grade have had sexual intercourse. Less than half of high school students reported discussion of sex or STDs during their preventive health visits, and males were less likely...

Majority of STD-Infected, Sexually Active People Have No Symptoms

Individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often unaware that they are infected. For example, one large study found that approximately 90 percent of individuals with herpes simplex virus type 2 infections were not aware they were infected.1 Up to 85 percent of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis have no recognizable symptoms.2 A study of adolescent females who had one or more of six STDs (genital herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, trichomoniasis) showed that 87 percent had no symptoms.3 Individuals who are infected but have no symptoms are less likely to be motivated to use condoms consistently [or to remain abstinent] and are unlikely to seek diagnosis and treatment. A person with an unrecognized and untreated infection will expose his or her sexual partner(s) to increased risk of infection due to continued exposures. Exposure to infection due to condom failure or inconsistent/incorrect condom use during this infectious period is likely to transmit infection. Read More on the STD Epidemic…www.medinstitute.org/STDFact.htm [The Medical Institute]...

Resistant Gonorrhea on the Rise (12/04)

CIPRO-RESISTANT GONORRHEA ON THE RISE — In Hawaii, the proportion of cases of gonorrhea that are resistant to treatment with the antibiotic Cipro increased nearly sevenfold 1997-2000. Fluoroquinolones like Cipro have been first-line treatment for gonorrhea infections since 1993 [medical journal Sexually Transmitted Diseases], but fluoroquinolone-resistant infections were first identified in Hawaii as early as 1991. An increase in such cases in 1999 prompted Dr. Christopher J. Iverson et al from the CDC, Atlanta, and the Hawaii Department of Health, to find that after declining steadily during the early 1990s, the overall number of gonorrhea cases reported to the Hawaii STD Program remained constant at approximately 500 cases/year from 1996-2000. The percentage of infections that were resistant to Cipro increased from less than 1.5 percent in 1996 to 6.3 percent in 1998 and 10.4 percent by 2000, the investigators report. Most of the Cipro-resistant infections were also resistant to penicillin, and 28 percent were also resistant to tetracycline. Nevertheless, all were susceptible to several other antibiotics. Based on these findings, Iverson’s team concludes that fluoroquinolones “are no longer recommended treatment for gonorrhea infections acquired in Hawaii, Asia, or the Pacific Islands.” [Reuters Health, 12/30/04; Abstinence Clearinghouse,...

Health Care Costs of HPV (Human Papillomavirus)(2004)

This cohort study examined the HPV health care costs in the USA, by using 1997-2002 records form 103,476 women enrolled in the Kaiser health plan… This study provided the “first direct estimates of both individual and population level costs of cervical human papillomavirus-related disease…Routine cervical cancer screening comprises nearly two thirds of total annual cervical human papillomavirus-related health care costs, with 10% of expenditures dedicated to the treatment of invasive cervical cancer, 17% to the management of cervical pre-cancers, and 9% to dealing with false-positive Papanicolaou test results.” [Thanks to Dr. Perry for this report: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2004) 191, 114-20, “The health care costs of cervical human papillomavirus-related disease”, Insinga, Glass MD, Rush RN; Dept of Pop Health Sciences, Univ of WI-Madison, Ctr for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente NW, Portland...

General STD Info: Everything You Really Don't Want to Know

IT IS TRUE that when two people have sexual intercourse, they are having intercourse with everyone with whom they both have ever had intercourse in the past.  They both bring all their acquired diseases with them.  This is because many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have no symptoms and are very difficult, if not impossible, to cure. In addition, more babies are born with birth defects from STDs than all the children stricken with polio in the 1950s.  (Hager H. Gayle, MD, MPH, Dir. CDC Center for HIV/STD, 1/98) There are over 50 known STDs at this time. The most commonly occurring STDs are: (1) Chlamydial infection, (2) Human Papilloma Virus infection, HPV (causes genital warts, Condylomata acuminata), (3) Gonorrheal infection, (4) Herpes Simplex Type II infection, HSV (5) Syphilis, (6) Trichomonas, (7) Hepatitis B, HBV, and (8) HIV/AIDS. Approximately 41,000-51,000 Americans are infected with an STD/STI each day. Two-thirds of all STDs/STIs infect Americans under 25 years of age. The CDC report that STDs infect three million teens each year. This number may be higher since many cases of STDs among teens go unreported; 80 percent of people infected with STDs have no symptoms and they may not realize they are infected (Safe Sex, J. McIlhaney, MD).   Progress of STDs 1960. The only STDs were syphilis and gonorrhea There is more syphilis in the USA now than since World War II. 1976. Chlamydia was recognized 1981. AIDS was identified 1960. The only STDs were syphilis and gonorrhea There is more syphilis in the USA now than since World War II. 1976. Chlamydia was recognized 1981. AIDS was identified Presently, there...

Physician Comments – STDs and Sexual Activity

The dangerous effects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases easily outweigh the momentary benefits of premarital sexual intercourse / sexual contact. As physicians, we encourage you to pause and seriously consider all the alternatives & consequences before you begin sexual involvement.  Right at 18.9 MILLION Americans were infected with STDs in the year 2000. Almost HALF of these (9.1 MILLION) are American youth between 15-24 years of age. Many of these people used condoms and thought they were “safe”.  If you are abstaining from sex outside marriage, we encourage you to continue to abstain.  If you are sexually active, we urge you to return to a state of sexual abstinence to guard your physical and emotional health, and to protect your...

STDs Among Young People Soar

1 of every 2 sexually active young people can expect to become infected by the age of 25. Young women are more at risk than young men because the infections can “silently” hide in the female reproductive tract, according to the study. [School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the UNC, Chapel Hill Washington Times, 2/25/04]   At a public health conference held in mid-December 2003 in D.C., doctors cited evidence of an epidemic of STDs among the nation’s teens, and cited “safe-sex” programs and condom-distribution as contributing factors of the problem. At the conference, researcher Dr. David Hager reported that within the U.S. each year, chlamydia cases increase by 4 million, pelvic inflammatory disease (PIDP by 1.2 million, gonorrhea by 2 million, genital herpes by 1 million and HPV by 5.5 million. According to the American Social Health Association, 3.8 million of these and other STD cases are contracted by U.S. teens — the highest contraction rate within the general U.S. population. In fact, almost 45% of all teens and young adults are infected with at least one STD by their mid-twenties.   Many of these STDs cannot be cured, leading to long-term health problems including infertility and even cancer. 95% of all cases of cervical cancer are associated with HPV infection, resulting in 4000 deaths a year in the U.S. Yet teens continue to be the most targeted group for the safe-sex message, which advocates condom use to prevent the spread of STDs, including HIV… Unfortunately, new statistics and studies have concluded that “while condom usage has increased most among teens, STDs have also increased most among teens.”...