STDs

Cervical Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Screening — United States, 2007–2012 (2015)

Abstract Background: Cervical cancer screening is one of the greatest cancer prevention achievements, yet some women still develop or die from this disease. Objective: To assess recent trends in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, current screening percentages, and factors associated with higher incidence and death rates and inadequate screening. Methods: Percentages of women who had not been screened for cervical cancer in the past 5 years were estimated using data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. State-specific cervical cancer incidence data from the United States Cancer Statistics and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate incidence and death rates for 2011 by state. Incidence and death rates and annual percentage changes from 2007 to 2011 were calculated by state and U.S. Census region. Results: In 2012, the percentage of women who had not been screened for cervical cancer in the past 5 years was estimated to be 11.4%; the percentage was larger for women without health insurance (23.1%) and for those without a regular health care provider (25.5%). From 2007 to 2011, the cervical cancer incidence rate decreased by 1.9% per year while the death rate remained stable. The South had the highest incidence rate (8.5 per 100,000), death rate (2.7 per 100,000), and percentage of women who had not been screened in the past 5 years (12.3%). Conclusions: Trends in cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased slightly while death rates have been stable over the last 5 years. The proportion of inadequately screened women is higher among older women, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Implications for Public Health Practice:...

HPV LInked to Tonsil Cancer (11/09)

HPV AND TONSIL CANCER The research of an Ohio oncologist, Maura Gillison, is confirming early data showing the annual increases in tonsil cancer among younger patients are due, at least in part, to HPV infection. Changes in sexual behavior during recent decades have probably encouraged the spread of the formerly-rare virus. One HPV strain—transmitted mostly through oral sex and French kissing—suppresses anti-cancer genes, allowing tumor growth in the exposed tissue. At Our Throats A new form of tonsil cancer is spreading rapidly. The cause isn't smoking and drinking but a virus.Oncologist Maura Gillison was looking for patients with tonsil cancer for a clinical study several years ago. The first enlisted was a malpractice lawyer, followed by a doctor, then a scientist. She joked to a colleague that all she needed was a rear admiral. In walked a member of the military brass. All were in their 30s, 40s and 50s. People in their prime didn't used to get throat tumors. Head-and-neck cancer, as doctors call it, was a disease of older problem drinkers who also chain-smoked (more men than women). Years of exposure to scotch and Lucky Strikes would damage the DNA of cells lining the throat, leading to cancer. But Gillison, 44, a professor at Ohio State University, was among the first researchers to make a startling realization: The old cigarettes-and-alcohol form of the disease was being eclipsed by a new form, caused by the same human papilloma virus (HPV) that causes cervical cancer. The tumors grow in the tonsils or in the tissue that remains after tonsillectomy. The only good news is that the prognosis for these...

HIV / AIDS Vaccine Hopes Smashed Yet Again (2008)

HIV/AIDS VACCINE TEST RESULTS: A “CATASTROPHE” LIKE “THE CHALLENGER DISASTER” That was the somber evaluation of the latest AIDS vaccine test results by Robert Gallo, co-discoverer of the HIV virus at a recent AIDS conference in Boston. Ronald C. Desrosiers, a molecular geneticist at Harvard University explained, "None of the products currently in the pipeline has any reasonable chance of being effective in field trials. We simply do not know at the present time how to design a vaccine that will be effective against HIV." Two major studies have had to be stopped because the vaccine being tested put the subjects at higher risk of infection than the unvaccinated, an unexpected outcome. For a readable overview of the vaccines themselves, the testing process, and the deeply disappointing results, see this news story from the Washington Post.  [“Vaccine Failure Is Setback in AIDS Fight,” Washington Post, 03-21-08, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/20/AR2008032003398.html?wpisrc=newsletter; POSTED: MAR 21, 2008,...

MRSA "Flesh Eating" Bacteria Striking Homosexual Men (AAM, 1/08)

“Flesh-Eating” Bacteria Striking Gay Men A new medical study appearing in the Annals of American Medicine shows that homosexuals are spreading a new, highly-infectious and extremely dangerous bacteria amongst themselves, most probably through anal intercourse. The bacterium, called MRSA USA300, is impervious to front-line antibiotics and can only be treated with rarer drugs, primarily Vancomycin. Researchers say that the bug, which is a type of staphylococcus, is primed to develop immunity to that drug as well.     Infected patients may have inflammation, abscesses, and tissue loss in the affected areas. Although the bacterium does not literally "eat" the body, it manufactures toxins that can cause "necrosis" – the death of surrounding tissue. The study’s authors note that the strong link between unhealthy behavior, particularly among homosexuals, is the driving force behind the disease. "Spread of the USA300 clone among men who have sex with men is associated with high-risk behaviors, including use of methamphetamine and other illicit drugs, sex with multiple partners, participation in a group sex party, use of the internet for sexual contacts, skin-abrading sex, and history of sexually transmitted infections," the authors write. "The same patterns of increased sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men – which have resulted from changes in beliefs regarding HIV disease severity with the availability of potent antiretroviral therapy – have been driving resurgent epidemics of early syphilis, rectal gonorrhea, and new HIV infections in San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere," add the researchers. The study, which focused on clinics in the San Francisco area, found that in some cases up to 39% of patients had the MRSA...

Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) — A herpes infection that causes serious illness in people with AIDS. CMV can develop in any part of the body but most often appears in the retina of the eye, the nervous system, the colon or the esophagus. In pregnant women, a mononucleosis-like symptom may occur. May be spread to pregnant mother through saliva from small children. Frequent careful washing of her hands may help the pregnant woman avoid infection. Infection could cause permanent damage to the unborn child [CDC, 2008].  CMV can also be spread through sexual activity (STD/ STI).   [American Social Health Association,...

Mycoplasma genitalium Among Young Adults in USA: Emerging STI (AJPH, 6/07)

Mycoplasma genitalium Among Young Adults in the United States: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection, AJPH, 6/07 Lisa E. Manhart, PhD, King K. Holmes, MD, PhD, James P. Hughes, PhD, Laura S. Houston, MS and Patricia A. Totten, PhD Objectives. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Methods. Urine specimens from 1714 women and 1218 men who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=14322) were tested for M genitalium. Poststratification sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. Results. The prevalence of M genitalium was 1.0% compared with 0.4%, 4.2%, and 2.3% for gonococcal, chlamydial, and trichomonal infections, respectively. No M genitalium–positive individuals reported symptoms of discharge. M genitalium prevalence among those who reported vaginal intercourse was 1.1% compared with 0.05% among those who did not. In multivariate analyses, M genitalium prevalence was 11 times higher among respondents who reported living with a sexual partner, 7 times higher among Blacks, and 4 times higher among those who used condoms during their last vaginal intercourse. Prevalence of M genitalium increased by 10% for each additional sexual partner. Conclusions. M genitalium was more prevalent than Neisseria gonorrhoeae but less prevalent than Chlamydia trachomatis, and it was strongly associated with sexual activity. Lisa E. Manhart is with the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle. King K. Holmes is with the Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle. James P. Hughes is with the Department of...

Rare STD: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (12/04)

  Health Officials Issue Alert about Rare Sexually Transmitted Disease — San Francisco public health officials issued a warning that a rare and potentially debilitating STD reported recently in the Netherlands has turned up among a small number of patients in the city. Known as lymphogranuloma venereum, or LGV, the disease is a form of the common sexually transmitted disease chlamydia — but this particular strain can cause scarring of the genitals and colon, and can produce a swelling and bursting of lymph glands near the groin.   Although the disease is seldom seen outside of poor, tropical nations, doctors in Rotterdam reported 92 cases among gay men during a 17-month period ending in September. Isolated cases have also been reported in Belgium, France, Sweden and Atlanta, Ga. In November, doctors at San Francisco's City Clinic treated one man with the disease, and subsequent tests of stored specimens spotted three other cases that occurred this summer but had gone undetected by conventional screens. None of the four patients who were found to have the STD in San Francisco had visited the Netherlands, an indication there may be other cases yet to be discovered in the city, said Dr. Sam Mitchell, a Department of Public Health epidemiologist. The four cases in San Francisco were among gay men, some of whom also tested positive for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Mitchell said there is no indication that HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for complications of LGV, but there is concern that a patient with the chlamydia infection might be more prone to contract HIV because of the ulceration caused by the...

Non-AIDS Defining Malignancies on the Rise (2/04)

“The incidence of five non-AIDS defining malignancies — lung cancer, head and neck cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, anorectal cancer and melanoma — are significantly higher in HIV-infected persons than in the general population,” Dr. Pragna Patel, of the of the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), told participants at the 11th Annual Retroviral Conference (San Francisco, 2/04). Conversely, rates of the AIDS-defining malignancies Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer have decreased, while the rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has stayed the same. These findings point to a changing pattern in cancer among HIV-infected patients since the emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapies in 1996.   Dr. Patel, based in Atlanta, and other HOPS members evaluated cancer incidence rates over an 11-year period, between 1992 and 2002. HOPS included nine clinics in eight cities where more than 3000 HIV patients were seen annually. Also included in the analysis were close to 8000 patients seen at two Chicago HIV clinics. These data were compared with data complied for the general population and cancer registries. The numbers were adjusted for age, race, smoking, and gender. Compared with the general population, Dr. Patel’s group found that HIV-infected patients in HOPS were twice as likely to have lung cancer, 5 times more likely to have Hodgkin’s disease, 10 times as likely to have anorectal cancer, and 3 times more likely to have melanoma. For the Chicago-based patients, the risks of all five non-AIDS-defining cancers were increased in HIV patients compared with the general population. The risks of lung cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, anorectal cancer, melanoma, and head and neck cancer were increased by 4-, 77-, 5-, 4-, and 10-fold, respectively....

HIV/AIDS Infection

For more information about HIV/AIDS, visit The Medical Institute, www.medinstitute.org. Initial acute infection is quite mild and is characterized by fever (80-90% cases), fatigue (70-90%), rash (40-80%), headache and lymph node enlargement. The acute infection usually lasts for less than two weeks and subsides. Once inside the body, the virus spreads by attaching mainly to white blood cells. This is a highly infectious stage where the infected person can pass on the infection to a sex partner easily.   Antibodies against the virus do not start developing for 3-4 weeks after first being infected.1 It is therefore hard to diagnose a case during the acute infection stage. In one study, of 23 persons who were enrolled in a routine HIV surveillance program and became HIV positive, 89% developed an acute infection. Of those who developed an acute infection, although 95% went to the doctor, only 25% were diagnosed with acute HIV infection.2 How is HIV Diagnosed? •Diagnostic tests look for the HIV virus or parts of the virus (antigen) or for molecules against the virus in the blood (antibodies) •Traditionally, an ELISA (enzyme linked immunoassay) test is used to detect HIV antibodies •ELISA can show positive results after 3-4 weeks1 •A new rapid antibody test takes < 20 minutes2 There are a host of tests for detecting HIV infection. Typically, those that detect parts of the virus (like HIV RNA or plasma p24 antigen) can identify an acute infection before antibodies are produced by the body. The traditional ELISA tests generally do not show positive results during an HIV acute infection until 3-4 weeks after the exposure; that is—after...

Hepatitis A (HAV)

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV), and is spread by putting anything in the mouth that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person. HAV-infected persons can spread the virus to household members or to sexual partners. Others who are more likely to contract HAV: men who have sex with men (MSM) people who use street drugs (IV – contaminated needles) children and employees in child care centers if a child or employee is HAV-infected travelers to countries where HAV is common those who work with HAV in research labs HAV can also be contracted by: eating fruits, vegetables, or other food that may have been contaminated during handling eating raw shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water swallowing contaminated water or ice There are often no symptoms found in children, while 3 of 4 infected adults have symptoms; symptoms usually develop over a period of days. SYMPTOMS yellow eyes dark urine nausea vomiting fever tiredness loss of appetite stomach ache A person can spread HAV approximately 1 week before symptoms appear. People with no symptoms can still spread the virus. Hepatitis A usually does not cause death, and there is no chronic infection with HAV. Once a person recovers from HAV, he/she will never contract it again. Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can help prevent HAV. Wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing food. [excerpts from "Prevent Hepatitis A", HHS, CDC, 11/2002]    Hepatitis A Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for persons at increased risk for hepatitis A (e.g., international travelers, men who have sex with men [MSM], injection drug users...

Hepatitis B (HBV)

Hepatitis B (HBV) is caused by a virus and results in chronic liver disease. There is no cure. Over 100,000 to 200,000 cases are reported annually. About 5000-6000 U.S. deaths occur each year from HBV infection that leads to liver disease. If a person has contracted Hepatitis A or Hepatitis C, he/she can still get Hepatitis B. HBV is spread by: having sex with an infected person direct contact with blood of an infected person How to Protect Against HBV Infection Avoid Sexual Contact with HBV-infected persons. Remember, you cannot tell by looking at people if they have STDs! In the case of Hepatitis, some people might exhibit yellow eyes/skin; but many people have no such symptoms. According to the CDC: "The efficacy of latex condoms in preventing infection with HBV is unknown, but their proper use may reduce transmission." Therefore, because you cannot usually see HBV symptoms, and because condoms still involve obvious risk, sexual abstinence is your only 100% certain way to eliminate the risk of Hepatitis. Avoid any contact with drugs, needles, syringes, or other materials that may contain blood (could be contaminated with HBV) Avoid sharing personal care items, such as razors or toothbrushes Think very seriously about the health risks of tattoos or body piercing (it is crucial that needles/equipment be sterilized, that disposable gloves are used, and that the piercer/artist washes his/her hands properly) Always handle needles and sharp instruments carefully in your workplace. [excerpts from "Prevent Hepatitis B", HHS, CDC, 8/03]  Hepatitis B During 1990–2004, the number of acute hepatitis B cases reported annually declined 68% (1). This steady decline has coincided...

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis, an infection caused by a protozoan organism called Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is one of the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted infections (STI/STD) in the world. There are more than 200 million new cases of trichomoniasis around the world each year.1 Of these, about 5 million new infections occur in the United States each year 2 —more cases then are attributed to either chlamydia or herpes in a year. TV affects about a fifth of all women in their reproductive years.3 It is most prevalent in African American women—as many as one quarter to one half have TV. TV has been found in 3% of college students attending a student health clinic and in 37% of commercial sex workers.4 TV rates in men at STD clinics range from 3 – 17%.5 TV causes about a fifth (20%) of the cases of nongonococcal urethritis (inflammation of urethra not caused by gonorrhea) in men.6 What Happens if I get TV? 50-75% of persons with TV have no symptoms.1   In men, inflammation of the urethra or mild discharge may occur, although most men with TV (85%) have no symptoms at all.1,2  Only one-fifth to one-half of infected women have symptoms. Typically there is a yellow-green vaginal discharge.  Red spots—visible in only few cases (10%)—are called “strawberry spots” or colpitis macularis and are highly specific for TV.3 In addition to the discharge, the infection may cause irritation, an unpleasant odor, and serious consequences if not treated. Abdominal pain may also occur in 12% of women due to severe vaginitis. References: 1.1. Sorvillo F, Smith L, Krendt P, Ash L, et al. Trichomonas...

Syphilis

Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum – a spiral organism identified by its motility under a microscope. The incubation period for the infection (ie, time from initial exposure to development of infection) varies from 10 to 90 days, with an average of about three weeks. Syphilis is also classified as an ulcerative STI because the infection causes sores or open lesions mainly on external genitals, anus, vagina or lips. The infection is passed when a noninfected person comes into contact with a lesion, usually during sexual activity such as vaginal, anal or oral sex. Once the bacteria enter the skin – usually through minute cuts or abrasions – the bacteria multiply locally and then spread to lymph nodes. The risk of getting infected over a certain period of time through sexual transmission from an infected to an uninfected person is roughly 30 – 60%.1  Pregnant women can also pass it to their babies through the placenta. Such transmission can result in stillbirth or severe deformities in the newborn.2 What are the Stages of Syphilis? Syphilis is a systemic disease that can affect various systems in the body and can last a lifetime. The disease progresses through four distinct phases: Primary Secondary Latent (early & late) Tertiary What is Primary Syphilis? •Single sore (chancre), there could be multiple too •Firm, round, painless; indicates point of bacterial entry •Typically occurs on genital skin and mucosa •May also occur in mouth, hands, or other parts of body •Heals by itself in 3-6 weeks The primary lesion of syphilis is a chancre or a single sore. The sore is the...

Herpes Simplex II (HSV-2)

Herpes Simplex (HSV) is a virus unique to humans. Two types exist: Type I causes fever blisters and Type II causes genital infections. Twenty-five percent (one in four) of sexually active women, and 20 percent of men, will become infected with Herpes Simplex Type II (CDC, 11/96) and 500,000 new cases are reported each year, with at least 45 million Americans diagnosed with HSV-2 (CDC, 1/98).  That is, 1 of every 5 Americans over the age of 11 already has the Herpes II virus due to sexual contact.  The number of herpes cases in white teens was five times greater  in the 1990s than it was in the 1970s. Once contracted, this virus remains dormant in the nerve ganglions  of the pelvis and periodically erupts in painful blisters and ulcerations in the genital area, tongue, eyes, lips, fingers or other body parts. Both males and females will usually suffer from occasional outbreaks, which seem to occur due to stress.  Once a person is infected, the Herpes II virus can be transmitted before symptoms occur and even when blisters are not apparent. It is a virus and highly infectious. Herpes II is essentially incurable. Anti-viral medications have been used to control the symptoms and decrease the number of outbreaks; but, these drugs do not eliminate the virus from the body or prevent transmission to sexual partners. This virus can be transmitted to a baby via vaginal delivery; a C-section will often be performed to avoid this.   Also, according to ongoing research, HSV (Herpes Simplex II) can increase the chances of acquiring HIV (AIDS).  HIV and HSV then interact on the cellular level:    HIV increases...

Gonorrhea

Gonorrheais caused by the bacteria N.gonorrhea. Approximately 600,000 new cases of this disease are now reported annually with the highest rates among teens [CDC, STD Surveillance,1997].  Gonorrhea can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) which renders the female sterile; gonorrhea can also cause sterility in the male. The presence of gonorrhea increases the chances of acquiring the HIV virus, if present. At least 50 percent of female gonorrhea infections have no symptoms [CDC, 1998].  [Excerpts from CDC, MMWR, June 16, 2006 / 53(53);1-79 Summary of Notifiable Diseases — United States, 2004] Gonorrhea Increases in Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States (1). Gonorrhea increases the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2). Nationally, reported gonorrhea incidence rates have been either declining or stable since 1996, although, in 2005, the national rate (115.6 cases per 100,000 population) increased for the first time since 1999 (3). In recent decades, western states have had lower gonorrhea rates than other U.S. regions; however, from 2000 to 2005, rates in the West* increased 42%, from 57.2 cases to 81.5 cases per 100,000 population (Figure). During that period, rates in the three other U.S. regions decreased (South: -22%, Northeast: -16%, and Midwest: -5%)… [March 16, 2007 / 56(10);222-225, CDC, MMWR Weekly, http://www.cdc.gov:80/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5610a4.htm?s_cid=mm5610a4_e]      In 2004, the gonorrhea rate (113.5 cases per 100,000 population) was the lowest ever reported in the United States (1). Although the gonorrhea rate among women (116.5) remained slightly higher than that among men (110.0) for the third straight year, rates for both men and...

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

Human Papilloma Virus (pap-ill-LOW-mah) Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) causes genital warts.  It is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States (5.5 million cases per year) and is incurable. HPV is also highly contagious (the risk is 1 per 2 sexual encounters, or 50% per encounter).  Human papilloma virus disease is manifested by wart-like growths (Condylomata acuminata) around the cervix, vulva, rectum or penis, or more recently, in the throat.  These warts may be as small as a pinhead,  or as large as a fist (this is not common, but has been reported in medical reports). A recent report of a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, 11-year long longitudinal study [JAMA, 20June01] found that: over 36 months, 55% of sexually active young women who had not had HPV previously, became infected. each new sexual partner per month increased a woman’s risk of HPV infection by 10 fold. daily cigarette smoking increased the chances that HPV infection would lead to LSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions — precancerous) Vaginal and cervical infection may result in abnormal pap smear cells (premalignant) which are very difficult to eliminate once diagnosed and which can become cancerous. Between 60 and 100 strains of HPV exist; at least five strains are known to cause cervical cancer, two other strains can cause invasive cancer within one year of infection, and men can experience cancer of the penis. Topical chemotheraphy, surgical removal, cryotherapy and laser treatment are utilized to control the warts.  However, oftentimes, the warts reappear within a few months and re-treatment is necessary. Both males and females can infect others with the papilloma virus and yet have no apparent warts. At...

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most common STD among young adults.   Ten to 40% of all cases of chlamydia, which can lead to infertility and other health problems, are reported in the 15 to 19 age group. [U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)].   Four million Americans per year are infected by chlamydia, and over one-third of sexually active teens have chlamydia.  Chlamydia is a microorganism which infects human mucus membranes of the vagina, rectum and mouth. The parasitic bacteria most frequently infects men and women who have had more than one sexual partner. Adolescent women are the most commonly infected group and the majority of infected women and men have no symptoms. The number of men and women afflicted with chlamydia each year is staggering; the damage done to reproductive organs and to fertility can be devastating. Chlamydia can move upward from the cervix into the pelvic organs and, if left untreated, can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in women. A consequence of Chlamydial Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is that it often renders the female sterile (unable to bear children) by scarring the Fallopian tubes, without any symptoms of active disease such as fever or pain. In males, chlamydia can inflame and block the sperm ducts. Chlamydial Infection is now considered the most common cause of sterility, as mentioned above, causing about 40 percent of PID in the U.S.  [CDC, STD/HIV Annual Report, 1997].  Other complications of chlamydial infection include adult pneumonia, ear infections, heart muscle infection, infection of the uterus after childbirth, miscarriage or premature delivery. It can also infect the child after birth. The symptoms of a chlamydial infection are quite mild when compared to the damage caused to the...

Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) (updated 3/07)

What is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that infects certain white blood cells.   When the virus infects these cells, called T-helper cells of CD4 cells, the virus takes over the cell’s ability to reproduce.   These “compromised” cells start making new copies of the virus. The infected cells die, releasing new copies of the virus that in turn infect new white blood cells.   This destruction of white blood cells damages the infected person’s immune system and compromises his/her ability to fight off infections and other immune system challenges.   In the USA, HIV infection is relatively uncommon, but in terms of morbidity (illness and suffering) and mortality (death), the toll is substantial. Outside the U.S. – and particularly in developing countries – the rates of new HIV infections are rising and the numbers of currently infected people are incredibly large. In some sub-Saharan countries in Africa, HIV prevalence among young adults is 15% or higher…   The History of HIV In 1981, news of a strange syndrome of immune suppression and death in young, otherwise healthy, homosexual males began to appear in the medical literature and news media. This condition was initially called Gay Related Immune Disorder (GRID); but in 1982, the name was changed to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as individuals other than homosexual men were noted to have this same condition.   Efforts were begun to identify the cause of the condition and the manner in which the condition was spread. Epidemiologic investigations determined that an infectious agent transmitted by exposure to infected blood or blood products, by intravenous drug use,...

Physicians Series Brochure: STDs

YES, WHEN TWO PEOPLE HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, they are having intercourse with everyone with whom they both have ever had intercourse, because many sexually transmitted diseases have no symptoms and are very difficult – if not impossible – to cure. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs) are increasing in the U.S. and many are at epidemic proportions. Most are spread by sexual intercourse, oral sex and anal sex. Many STDs can seriously damage you forever. People who have one STD generally have acquired more than one and have dramatically increased their chances of acquiring HIV. The best way to avoid contracting STDs is to avoid sexual activity outside a faithful monogamous marriage.   The STD rate among teenagers and young adults is high. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) report that two-thirds of all STD cases occur among persons under 25 years of age (Hidden Epidemic, 1996). Many of these diseases cause long-term, adverse effects. Women’s health and future ability to bear children can be jeopardized. More babies are born with birth defects from STDs than all the children stricken with polio in the 1950s (Hager H. Gayle, MD, MPH, Dir. CDC Center for HIV/STD, 1/98).   The CDC report that STDs infect 3 million teens or more each year because many cases of STDs among teens go unreported. 80 percent of those STD-infected have no symptoms and may not realize they are infected (Safe Sex, J. McIlhaney, MD). Teens compose 10% of the population but contract 25% of the STDs each year (MISH, 7/97). Between 100,000 and 150,000 American women become sterile each year because of STD-related infections (American Social Health Association, 1994; CDC, 1994 Annual Report). There...

Chlamydia Linked To HPV Persistence and Cervical Cancer Risk (2003, 2008)

CHLAMYDIA, HPV AND CERVICAL CANCER The human papillomavirus (HPV), an infectious disease of the skin and inner membranes, is considered one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world and a necessary agent of cervical cancer. Research now shows that Chlamydia increases this risk. New research on the effect of STDs on cervical cancer demonstrates that an infection with both HPV and Chlamydia extends HPV persistence in females. Jeff Korte, Ph.D., principal investigator of a National Cancer Institute funded study and assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), tracked HPV infections in 68 women with existing STDs to analyze the impact of genital infections over a two-year period. Korte found that HPV infections lasted longer if Chlamydia also was present. "HPV persistence is one of the most important risk factors for cervical cancer", said Korte. "If an HPV infection persists longer, it is more likely to be accompanied by a serious lesion and progress to cancer". [“Researcher Finds Link Between Chlamydia And Cervical Cancer,” Medical News Today, 03-15-08, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/100749.php); POSTED: MAR 15, 2008, www.abstinence.net] ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~  2003  Women with persistent chlamydial infection are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. [Reuters Health, 17Dec03; 24Dec03, Abstinence...