Studies - Abstinence / Pornography / Sex Outside Marriage Research

CDC: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, 2005

  53.2% of High School Students have NOT engaged in sexual activity, 2005 

Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. The Reporting Period Covered October 2004–January 2006.

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. In addition, the YRBSS monitors general health status and the prevalence of overweight and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 40 state surveys, and 21 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9–12 during October 2004–January 2006.

Results: In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10–24 years result from four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that, during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that increased their likelihood of death from these 4 causes: 9.9% had driven a car or other vehicle when they had been drinking alcohol; 18.5% had carried a weapon; 43.3% had drunk alcohol; and 20.2% had used marijuana.

In addition, during the 12 months preceding the survey, 35.9% of high school students had been in a physical fight and 8.4% had attempted suicide. Substantial morbidity and social problems among youth also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection.

During 2005, a total of 46.8% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse (53.2% NOT sexually experienced); 37.2% of sexually active high school students (33.9% of all students reported as sexually active) had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 2.1% had ever injected an illegal drug.

Among adults aged >25 years, 61% of all deaths result from two causes: cardiovascular disease and cancer. Results from the 2005 national YRBS indicated that risk behaviors associated with these two causes of death were initiated during adolescence. During 2005, a total of 23.0% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 79.9% had not eaten >5 times/day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey; 67.0% did not attend physical education classes daily; and 13.1% were overweight. Interpretation: Since 1991, the prevalence of many health-risk behaviors among high school students nationwide has decreased. However, many high school students continue to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of many health-risk behaviors varies across cities and states.

 [Excerpts from CDC YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE, United States, 2005, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm]ttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm
Sexual Behaviors That Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and STD, Including HIV Infection

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 46.8% of students had had sexual intercourse during their life (Table 44). The prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among black male (74.6%) and Hispanic male (57.6%) than black female (61.2%) and Hispanic female (44.4%) students, respectively, and higher among 9th grade male (39.3%) than 9th grade female (29.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among black (67.6%) than white (43.0%) and Hispanic (51.0%) students; higher among Hispanic (51.0%) than white (43.0%) students; higher among black female (61.2%) than white female (43.7%) and Hispanic female (44.4%) students; higher among black male (74.6%) than white male (42.2%) and Hispanic male (57.6%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (57.6%) than white male (42.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among 10th grade (42.8%), 11th grade (51.4%), and 12th grade (63.1%) than 9th grade (34.3%) students; higher among 11th grade (51.4%) and 12th grade (63.1%) than 10th grade (42.8%) students; higher among 12th grade (63.1%) than 11th grade (51.4%) students; higher among 10th grade female (44.0%), 11th grade female (52.1%), and 12th grade female (62.4%) than 9th grade female (29.3%) students; higher among 11th grade female (52.1%) and 12th grade female (62.4%) than 10th grade female (44.0%) students; higher among 12th grade female (62.4%) than 11th grade female (52.1%) students; higher among 11th grade male (50.6%) and 12th grade male (63.8%) than 9th grade male (39.3%) and 10th grade male (41.5%) students; and higher among 12th grade male (63.8%) than 11th grade male (50.6%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse ranged from 35.7% to 55.1% across state surveys (median: 44.8%) and from 31.3% to 69.3% across local surveys (median: 52.2%) (Table 45).

Had First Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 6.2% of students had had sexual intercourse for the first time before age 13 years (Table 44). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among male (8.8%) than female (3.7%) students; higher among white male (5.0%), black male (26.8%), and Hispanic male (11.1%) than white female (2.9%), black female (7.1%), and Hispanic female (3.6%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th grade male (12.0%), 10th grade male (7.7%), 11th grade male (8.0%), and 12th grade male (6.2%) than 9th grade female (5.4%), 10th grade female (4.1%), 11th grade female (2.6%), and 12th grade female (2.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among black (16.5%) than white (4.0%) and Hispanic (7.3%) students; higher among Hispanic (7.3%) than white (4.0%) students; higher among black female (7.1%) than white female (2.9%) and Hispanic female (3.6%) students; higher among bla

ck male (26.8%) than white male (5.0%) and Hispanic male (11.1%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (11.1%) than white male (5.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among 9th grade (8.7%) than 10th grade (5.9%), 11th grade (5.2%), and 12th grade (4.1%) students; higher among 10th grade (5.9%) than 12th grade (4.1%) students; higher among 9th grade female (5.4%) than 11th grade female (2.6%) and 12th grade female (2.0%) students; higher among 10th grade female (4.1%) than 12th grade female (2.0%) students; and higher among 9th grade male (12.0%) than 10th grade male (7.7%), 11th grade male (8.0%), and 12th grade male (6.2%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years ranged from 2.8% to 10.8% across state surveys (median: 5.8%) and from 5.3% to 18.8% across local surveys (median: 10.6%) (Table 45).

Had Sexual Intercourse with Four or More Persons During Their Life

Nationwide, 14.3% of students had had sexual intercourse with >4 persons during their life (Table 44). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with >4 persons was higher among male (16.5%) than female (12.0%) students; higher among black male (38.7%) and Hispanic male (21.7%) than black female (18.6%) and Hispanic female (10.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th grade male (13.2%), 10th grade male (13.2%), and 11th grade male (18.1%) than 9th grade female (5.7%), 10th grade female (9.7%), and 11th grade female (14.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with >4 persons was higher among black (28.2%) than white (11.4%) and Hispanic (15.9%) students; higher among Hispanic (15.9%) than white (11.4%) students; higher among black female (18.6%) than white female (11.1%) and Hispanic female (10.4%) students; higher among black male (38.7%) than white male (11.6%) and Hispanic male (21.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (21.7%) than white male (11.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with >4 persons was higher among 11th grade (16.2%) and 12th grade (21.4%) than 9th grade (9.4%) and 10th grade (11.5%) students; higher among 12th grade (21.4%) than 11th grade (16.2%) students; higher among 10th grade female (9.7%), 11th grade female (14.2%), and 12th grade female (20.2%) than 9th grade female (5.7%) students; higher among 11th grade female (14.2%) and 12th grade female (20.2%) than 10th grade female (9.7%) students; higher among 12th grade female (20.2%) than 11th grade female (14.2%) students; higher among 11th grade male (18.1%) and 12th grade male (22.6%) than 9th grade male (13.2%) and 10th grade male (13.2%) students; and higher among 12th grade male (22.6%) than 11th grade male (18.1%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with >4 persons ranged from 9.0% to 19.1% across state surveys (median: 13.6%) and from 8.7% to 29.3% across local surveys (median: 17.7%) (Table 45).

Currently Sexually Active

Nationwide, 33.9% of students had had sexual intercourse with >1 person during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., currently sexually active) (Table 46). The prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among black male (51.3%) than black female (43.8%) students and higher among 9th grade male (24.5%) and 10th grade female (31.1%) than 9th grade female (19.5%) and 10th grade male (27.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among black (47.4%) than white (32.0%) and Hispanic (35.0%) students; higher among black female (43.8%) than white female (33.5%) and Hispanic female (33.7%) students; higher among black male (51.3%) than white male (30.6%) and Hispanic male (36.3%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (36.3%) than white male (30.6%) students. The prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among 10th grade (29.2%), 11th grade (39.4%), and 12th grade (49.4%) than 9th grade (21.9%) students; higher among 11th grade (39.4%) and 12th grade (49.4%) than 10th grade (29.2%) students; and higher among 12th grade (49.4%) than 11th grade (39.4%) students; higher among 10th grade female (31.1%), 11th grade female (40.8%), and 12th grade female (51.7%) than 9th grade female (19.5%) students; higher among 11th grade female (40.8%) and 12th grade female (51.7%) than 10th grade female (31.1%) students; higher among 12th grade female (51.7%) than 11th grade female (40.8%) students; higher among 11th grade male (37.9%) and 12th grade male (47.0%) than 9th grade male (24.5%) and 10th grade male (27.2%) students; and higher among 12th grade male (47.0%) than 11th grade male (37.9%) students. Prevalence of being currently sexually active ranged from 24.1% to 40.6% across state surveys (median: 33.3%) and from 22.0% to 51.1% across local surveys (median: 37.0%) (Table 47).

Condom Use

Among the 33.9% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 62.8% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table 46). Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among male (70.0%) than female (55.9%) students; higher among white male (70.1%), black male (75.5%), and Hispanic male (65.3%) than white female (55.6%), black female (62.1%), and Hispanic female (49.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th grade male (74.4%) and 12th grade male (65.8%) than 10th grade female (57.1%) and 12th grade female (46.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among black (68.9%) than white (62.6%) and Hispanic (57.7%) students; higher among white (62.6%) than Hispanic (57.7%) students; higher among white female (55.6%) and black female (62.1%) than Hispanic female (49.8%) students; and higher among black male (75.5%) than Hispanic male (65.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among 9th grade (74.5%) than 10th grade (65.3%), 11th grade (61.7%), and 12th grade (55.4%) students; higher among 10th grade (65.3%) and 11th grade (61.7%) than 12th grade (55.4%) students; higher among 9th grade female (71.5%) than 10th grade female (57.1%), 11th grade female (57.8%), and 12th grade female (46.1%) students; higher among 10th grade female (57.1%) and 11th grade female (57.8%) than 12th grade female (46.1%) students; and higher among 9th grade male (77.1%) and 10th grade male (74.4%) than 11th grade male (66.0%) and 12th grade male (65.8%) students. Prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse ranged from 47.6% to 71.2% across state surveys (median: 62.6%) and from 59.1% to 79.2% across local surveys (median: 69.4%) (Table 47).

Birth Control Pill Use

Among the 33.9% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 17.6% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse (Table 46). Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among female (20.6%) than male (14.6%) students; higher among white female (27.1%) than white male (17.2%) students; and higher among 10th grade female (18.0%) and 12th grade female (28.9%) than 10th grade male (10.3%) and 12th grad

e male (21.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (22.3%) than black (10.0%) and Hispanic (9.8%) students; higher among white female (27.1%) than black female (10.7%) and Hispanic female (9.4%) students; and higher among white male (17.2%) than black male (9.4%) and Hispanic male (10.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among 10th grade (14.3%), 11th grade (18.5%), and 12th grade (25.6%) than 9th grade (7.5%) students; higher among 12th grade (25.6%) than 10th grade (14.3%) and 11th grade (18.5%) students; higher among 10th grade female (18.0%), 11th grade female (20.2%), and 12th grade female (28.9%) than 9th grade female (8.8%) students; higher among 12th grade female (28.9%) than 10th grade female (18.0%) and 11th grade female (20.2%) students; and higher among 11th grade male (16.6%) and 12th grade male (21.9%) than 9th grade male (6.4%) and 10th grade male (10.3%) students. Prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse ranged from 12.7% to 34.6% across state surveys (median: 18.4%) and from 3.8% to 17.3% across local surveys (median: 8.6%) (Table 47).

Alcohol or Drug Use Before Last Sexual Intercourse

Among the 33.9% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 23.3% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse (Table 48). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among male (27.6%) than female (19.0%) students; higher among white male (29.9%) and Hispanic male (32.2%) than white female (20.5%) and Hispanic female (18.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th grade male (29.0%) and 12th grade male (27.6%) than 11th grade female (16.8%) and 12th grade female (19.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (25.0%) and Hispanic (25.6%) than black (14.1%) students; higher among white female (20.5%) and Hispanic female (18.7%) than black female (12.8%) students; and higher among white male (29.9%) and Hispanic male (32.2%) than black male (15.4%) students. Prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse ranged from 18.6% to 30.9% across state surveys (median: 22.9%) and from 13.4% to 26.8% across local surveys (median: 16.6%) (Table 49).

Dating Violence

During the 12 months preceding the survey, 9.2% of students nationwide had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend (i.e., dating violence) (Table 10). Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among black (11.9%) and Hispanic (9.9%) than white (8.2%) students; higher among black female (12.0%) than white female (8.5%) and Hispanic female (9.0%) students; and higher among black male (11.8%) and Hispanic male (10.9%) than white male (8.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among 11th grade (9.9%) and 12th grade (11.1%) than 9th grade (7.4%) students; higher among 12th grade (11.1%) than 10th grade (8.7%) students; higher among 12th grade female (10.7%) than 9th grade female (7.7%) students; and higher among 11th grade male (10.4%) and 12th grade male (11.4%) than 9th grade male (7.0%) and 10th grade male (7.8%) students. Prevalence of dating violence ranged from 6.0% to 16.3% across state surveys (median: 10.6%) and from 7.3% to 20.8% across local surveys (median: 11.4%) (Table 11).

Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 7.5% of students had ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to (Table 10). Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among female (10.8%) than male (4.2%) students; higher among white female (10.8%), black female (11.5%), and Hispanic female (9.4%) than white male (3.1%), black male (7.1%), and Hispanic male (6.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th grade female (8.7%), 10th grade female (10.7%), 11th grade female (11.6%), and 12th grade female (12.7%) than 9th grade male (3.5%), 10th grade male (3.8%), 11th grade male (4.2%), and 12th grade male (5.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among black (9.3%) than white (6.9%) students and higher among black male (7.1%) and Hispanic male (6.4%) than white male (3.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among 11th grade (7.9%) and 12th grade (9.0%) than 9th grade (6.1%) students; higher among 12th grade (9.0%) than 10th grade (7.2%) students; higher among 12th grade female (12.7%) than 9th grade female (8.7%) students; and higher among 12th grade male (5.3%) than 9th grade male (3.5%) students. Prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse ranged from 5.1% to 11.2% across state surveys (median: 8.4%) and from 5.0% to 13.1% across local surveys (median: 8.5%) (Table 11).

Taught in School About AIDS or HIV Infection

Nationwide, 87.9% of students had ever been taught in school about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV infection (Table 48). Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among white (89.4%) than black (86.3%) and Hispanic (84.7%) students; higher among white female (90.1%) than Hispanic female (85.8%) students; and higher among white male (88.7%) than Hispanic male (83.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among 10th grade (88.4%), 11th grade (89.6%), and 12th grade (89.4%) than 9th grade (85.0%) students; higher among 10th grade female (89.4%) and 12th grade female (90.1%) than 9th grade female (85.5%) students; and higher among 11th grade male (89.5%) and 12th grade male (88.7%) than 9th grade male (84.4%) students. Prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection ranged from 79.8% to 92.7 % across state surveys (median: 88.4%) and from 78.6% to 90.5% across local surveys (median: 85.9%) (Table 49).

Tested for HIV

Nationwide, 11.9% of students had been tested for HIV (Table 48). Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among female (13.2%) than male (10.6%) students; higher among white female (11.6%) and black female (24.1%) than white male (8.8%) and black male (17.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th grade female (13.2%), 11th grade female (14.1%), and 12th grade female (19.3%) than 10th grade male (10.2%), 11th grade male (10.2%), and 12th grade male (12.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among black (21.0%) than white (10.2%) and Hispanic (12.0%) students; higher among black female (24.1%) than white female (11.6%) and Hispanic female (11.2%) students; higher among black male (17.9%) than white male (8.8%) and Hispanic male (12.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (12.7%) than white male (8.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among 10th grade (11.6%), 11th grade (12.2%), and 12th grade (15.8%) than 9th grade (8.9%) students; higher among 12th grade (15.8%) than 10th grade (11.6%) a

nd 11th grade (12.2%) students; higher among 10th grade female (13.2%), 11th grade female (14.1%), and 12th grade female (19.3%) than 9th grade female (7.9%) students; and higher among 12th grade female (19.3%) than 10th grade female (13.2%) and 11th grade female (14.1%) students.  [Danice K. Eaton, PhD,1 Laura Kann, PhD,1 Steve Kinchen,1 James Ross, MS,2 Joseph Hawkins, MA,3 William A. Harris, MM,1 Richard Lowry, MD,1 Tim McManus, MS,1 David Chyen, MS,1 Shari Shanklin, MS,1 Connie Lim, MPA,1 Jo Anne Grunbaum, EdD,4 Howell Wechsler, EdD1.  1Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC; 2ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland; 3Westat, Rockville, Maryland; 4Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. Corresponding author: Danice K. Eaton, PhD, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, MS K-33, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Telephone: 770-488-6143; Fax: 770-488-6156; E-mail: [email protected]] [MMWR Surveillance Summaries, CDC, 9June06 / 55(SS05);1-108]

  Excerpts from YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE, United States, 2005.

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm

 

New Study Shows Teen Sex Rates Declining, Teen Birth Rate Decline Slows 
[Steven Ertelt, LifeNews.com June 8, 2006]

Washington, DC (LifeNews.com) — A new study released by the National Center for Health Statistics reveals that the percentage of teenagers have sex is on the decline across all age groups. The data suggests abstinence education campaigns are having a positive effect in lowering the rates, despite criticism from abortion advocates.

The NCHS stats show the decline is most noticeable among male teenagers between the ages of 15 and 19, as 23 percent fewer teen guys that age had sexual relations.

The new data covers the period between 1988 and 2002 and is drawn from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth the NCHS conducted.

Dr. Janice Shaw Crouse, of Concerned Women for America, applauded the new statistics showing the teen sex rate decline.

“This official data should silence those critics who have been denying the positive trends in teen abstinence and questioning the effectiveness of abstinence programs," she said.

The NCHS reported the latest teen sex rates in the June issue of Child Trends’ “Research Brief." The new figures show that teen pregnancy rates have been on the decline but that the decline has been slowing in recent years.

The decline includes all racial and/or ethnic groups, older and younger teenagers, and teenagers in every state. However, the research indicates a slowing of the decline of U.S. teen birth rates, which has resulted in an increase in the total number of births to teenagers.

The slowing of the decline could be contributed in part by more pregnancy centers reaching more teenagers who become pregnant and presenting them with abortion alternatives and encouraging to keep their baby or pursue adoption rather than have an abortion.

The NCHS study also found that adolescents who delay their first sexual experience are less likely to regret the timing of their first sexual experience, have fewer sexual partners and are less likely to be coerced into having sex.

“Teens who engage in promiscuous sexual relations are at a greater risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies," Dr. Crouse said.

"We must keep sending the simple message: what works in delaying teen sexual activity and preventing promiscuity is parental involvement, good friends, strong faith, and participation in church activities," Crouse concluded.

Related web sites:
Concerned Women for America –
http://www.cwfa.org