Studies - Abstinence / Pornography / Sex Outside Marriage Research

CDC: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance 2007

MMWR, Surveillance Summaries
June 6, 2008 / 57(SS04);1-131
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5704a1.htm?s_cid=ss5704a1_e   

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance — United States, 2007

Trends During 1991–2007

Tobacco Use
The percentage of students who reported lifetime cigarette use did not change significantly during 1991–1999 (70.1%–70.4%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (70.4%–50.3%). During 2001–2007, significant linear decreases occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime daily cigarette use (20.0%–12.4%), who reported trying to quit smoking cigarettes (57.4%–49.7%), and who reported buying cigarettes in a store or gas station (19.0%–16.0%).

The percentage of students who reported trying to quit smoking cigarettes also decreased from 2005–2007 (54.6%–49.7%). The percentage of students who reported current cigarette use increased during 1991–1997 (27.5%–36.4%) and then decreased during 1997–2007 (36.4%–20.0%), and the percentage of students who reported current frequent cigarette use increased during 1991–1999 (12.7%–16.8%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (16.8%–8.1%).

During 1991–2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day (18.0%–10.7%).

The percentage of students who reported current smokeless tobacco use decreased during 1995–2003 (11.4%–6.7%) and then did not change significantly during 2003–2007 (6.7%–7.9%).

The percentage of students who reported current cigar use decreased during 1997–2005 (22.0%–14.0%) and then did not change significantly during 2005–2007 (14.0%–13.6%). During 1997–2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported current tobacco use (43.4%–25.7%).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

During 1991–2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime alcohol use (81.6%–75.0%). The percentage of students who reported current alcohol use did not change significantly during 1991–1999 (50.8%–50.0%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (50.0%–44.7%), and the percentage of students who reported episodic heavy drinking did not change significantly during 1991–1997 (31.3%–33.4%) and then decreased during 1997–2007 (33.4%–26.0%).

The percentage of students who reported lifetime marijuana use increased during 1991–1999 (31.3%–47.2%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (47.2%–38.1%), and the percentage of students who reported current marijuana use increased during 1991–1999 (14.7%–26.7%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (26.7%–19.7%).

The percentage of students who reported lifetime cocaine use increased during 1991–1999 (5.9%–9.5%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (9.5%–7.2%), and the percentage of students who reported current cocaine use increased during 1991–2001 (1.7%–4.2%) and then decreased during 2001–2007 (4.2%–3.3%).

The percentage of students who reported lifetime inhalant use decreased during 1995–2003 (20.3%–12.1%) and then did not change significantly during 2003–2007 (12.1%–13.3%).

The percentage of students who reported lifetime illegal steroid use increased during 1991–2003 (2.7%–6.1%) and then decreased during 2003–2007 (6.1%–3.9%).

During 2001–2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime hallucinogenic drug use (13.3%–7.8%) and lifetime ecstasy use (11.1%–5.8%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime heroine use did not change significantly during 1999–2003 (2.4%–3.3%) and then decreased during 2003–2007 (3.3%–2.3%).

The percentage of students who reported lifetime methamphetamine use did not change significantly during 1999–2001 (9.1%–9.8%) and then decreased during 2001–2007 (9.8%–4.4%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime methamphetamine use also decreased during 2005–2007 (6.2%–4.4%).

Age of Initiation of Risk Behaviors

The percentage of students who reported smoking a whole cigarette for the first time before age 13 years increased during 1991–1993 (23.8%–26.9%) and then decreased during 1993–2007 (26.9%–14.2%).

The percentage of students who reported having drunk alcohol for the first time before age 13 years did not change significantly 1991–1999 (32.7%–32.2%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (32.2%–23.8%).

The percentage of students who reported having tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years increased during 1991–1999 (7.4%–11.3%) and then decreased during 1999–2007 (11.3%–8.3%). During 2005–2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these age of initiation variables.

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Including HIV Infection

During 1991–2007, significant linear decreases occurred in the percentage of students who ever had sexual intercourse (54.1%–47.8%), who had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their lifetime (18.7%–14.9%), and who were currently sexually active (37.5%–35.0%).

The percentage of students who had sexual intercourse for the first time before age 13 years decreased during 1991–2005 (10.2%–6.2%) and then did not change significantly during 2005–2007 (6.2%–7.1%).

The percentage of sexually active students who used a condom at last sexual intercourse increased during 1991–2003 (46.2%–63.0%) and then did not change significantly during 2003–2007 (63.0%–61.5%).

The percentage of students who drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse increased during 1991–2001 (21.6–25.6) and then decreased during 2001–2007 (25.6%–22.5%).

The percentage of students who were taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection increased during 1991–1997 (83.3%–91.5%) and then decreased during 1997–2007 (91.5%–89.5%). During 2005–2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these sexual behavior variables.

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More Teens Remaining Chaste Study Reveals
US high school aged children are becoming more aware of the problems and diseases associated with high risk and irresponsible behavior according to a study released yesterday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The new data is from the CDC's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. The survey is administered every two years to about 14,000 high school students across the US and contains information on high school students' sexual behavior, dr

ug and alcohol use, and other high risk activity.

Compared to data from the 1990's, the study reveals that this generation of teens is having less sex, smoking fewer cigarettes and doing fewer drugs.

About 46 percent of high school students in 1991 said they had never engaged in sexual activity. The 2007 survey reports that 52 percent of students said they were still virgins.

Fifteen percent said that they had had four or more sexual partners, down from 19 percent in 1991.

Drug and alcohol use has also decreased since the 90's. Some 35 percent of teens had at least one alcoholic drink in the month before they were surveyed in 2007, down from 42 percent in 1991.

Marijuana use has fallen to 20 percent of students from a peak of 27 percent in 1999, while use of methamphetamine, cocaine, heroin and ecstasy is down to 4 percent of teens surveyed in 2007 compared to 10 percent in 2001.

Tobacco use has shown the most dramatic decrease, with 50 percent of students in the current survey saying they had tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs, compared to almost 70 percent in the 1995 report.
[June 5, 2008, LifeSiteNews.com, T.M. Baklinski, Atlanta]
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MMWR, Surveillance Summaries
June 6, 2008 / 57(SS04);1-131
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5704a1.htm?s_cid=ss5704a1_e   

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance — United States, 2007

Statistics

Dating Violence

During the 12 months before the survey, 9.9% of students nationwide had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend (i.e., dating violence) (Table 11). Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among male (11.0%) than female (8.8%) students and higher among 9th-grade male (10.5%) and 12th-grade male (14.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) and 12th-grade female (10.1%) students, respectively.

 
Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among black (14.2%) and Hispanic (11.1%) than white (8.4%) students; higher among black (14.2%) than Hispanic (11.1%) students; higher among black female (13.2%) and Hispanic female (10.1%) than white female (7.4%) students; higher among black female (13.2%) than Hispanic female (10.1%) students; and higher among black male (15.2%) than white male (9.3%) students.

Overall, the prevalence of dating v

iolence was higher among 11th-grade (10.6%) and 12th-grade (12.1%) than 9th-grade (8.5%) and 10th-grade (8.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (10.2%) and 12th-grade female (10.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (14.1%) than 9th-grade male (10.5%) and 10th-grade male (9.1%) students. Prevalence of dating violence ranged from 7.2% to 15.7% across state surveys (median: 11.8%) and from 6.6% to 17.4% across local surveys (median: 12.0%)

Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 7.8% of students had ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to (Table 11).

Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among female (11.3%) than male (4.5%) students; higher among white female (11.0%), black female (13.3%), and Hispanic female (11.4%) than white male (3.2%), black male (7.8%), and Hispanic male (6.2%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (9.2%), 10th-grade female (13.1%), 11th-grade female (12.0%), and 12th-grade female (10.9%) than 9th-grade male (4.1%), 10th-grade male (3.4%), 11th-grade male (5.0%), and 12th-grade male (5.7%) students, respectively.

Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among black (10.5%) and Hispanic (8.8%) than white (7.0%) students and higher among black male (7.8%) and Hispanic male (6.2%) than white male (3.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among 11th-grade (8.5%) and 12th-grade (8.3%) than 9th-grade (6.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (13.1%) than 9th-grade female (9.2%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (5.0%) and 12th-grade male (5.7%) than 10th-grade male (3.4%) students. Prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse ranged from 6.3% to 14.0% across state surveys (median: 9.1%) and from 5.6% to 12.2% across local surveys (median: 8.5%)

Felt Sad or Hopeless

During the 12 months before the survey, 28.5% of students nationwide had felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities (Table 19). Overall, the prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row was higher among female (35.8%) than male (21.2%) students; higher among white female (34.6%), black female (34.5%), and Hispanic female (42.3%) than white male (17.8%), black male (24.0%), and Hispanic male (30.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (34.8%), 10th-grade female (37.7%), 11th-grade female (34.5%), and 12th-grade female (35.9%) than 9th-grade male (22.1%), 10th-grade male (20.3%), 11th-grade male (19.5%), and 12th-grade male (22.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row was higher among black (29.2%) and Hispanic (36.3%) than white (26.2%) students; higher among Hispanic (36.3%) than black (29.2%) students; higher among Hispanic female (42.3%) than white female (34.6%) and black female (34.5%) students; higher among black male (24.0%) and Hispanic male (30.4%) than white male (17.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (30.4%) than black male (24.0%) students. Prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks ranged from 17.1% to 32.5% across state surveys (median: 26.1%) and from 24.8% to 32.2% across local surveys (median: 27.8%) (Table 20).

Seriously Considered Attempting Suicide

Nationwide, 14.5% of students had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months before the survey (Table 21). Overall, the prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among female (18.7%) than male (10.3%) students; higher among white female (17.8%), black female (18.0%), and Hispanic female (21.1%) than white male (10.2%), black male (8.5%), and Hispanic male (10.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (19.0%), 10th-grade female (22.0%), 11th-grade female (16.3%), and 12th-grade female (16.7%) than 9th-grade male (10.8%), 10th-grade male (9.3%), 11th-grade male (10.7%), and 12th-grade male (10.2%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among Hispanic female (21.1%) than white female (17.8%) students. The prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among 10th-grade female (22.0%) than 11th-grade female (16.3%) and 12th-grade female (16.7%) students. Prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide ranged from 10.4% to 19.3% across state surveys (median: 14.5%) and from 9.7% to 15.0% across local surveys (median: 12.7%) (Table 22).

Made a Suicide Plan

During the 12 months before the survey, 11.3% of students nationwide had made a plan about how they would attempt suicide (Table 21). Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher a

mong female (13.4%) than male (9.2%) students; higher among white female (12.8%), black female (12.0%), and Hispanic female (15.2%) than white male (8.8%), black male (7.1%), and Hispanic male (10.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (13.4%) and 10th-grade female (16.1%) than 9th-grade male (9.2%) and 10th-grade male (8.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher among Hispanic (12.8%) than white (10.8%) and black (9.5%) students; higher among Hispanic female (15.2%) than white female (12.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (10.4%) than black male (7.1%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher among 10th-grade female (16.1%) than 11th-grade female (11.6%) and 12th- grade female (11.7%) students. Prevalence of having made a suicide plan ranged from 8.1% to 17.8% across state surveys (median: 11.5%) and from 8.0% to 14.7% across local surveys (median: 10.9%) (Table 22).

Attempted Suicide

Nationwide, 6.9% of students had attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months before the survey (Table 23). Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among female (9.3%) than male (4.6%) students; higher among white female (7.7%), black female (9.9%), and Hispanic female (14.0%) than white male (3.4%), black male (5.5%), and Hispanic male (6.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (10.5%), 10th-grade female (11.2%), 11th-grade female (7.8%), and 12th-grade female (6.5%) than 9th-grade male (5.3%), 10th-grade male (4.9%), 11th-grade male (3.7%), and 12th-grade male (4.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among black (7.7%) and Hispanic (10.2%) than white (5.6%) students; higher among Hispanic (10.2%) than black (7.7%) students; higher among Hispanic female (14.0%) than white female (7.7%) and black female (9.9%) students; and higher among black male (5.5%) and Hispanic male (6.3%) than white male (3.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among 9th-grade (7.9%) and 10th-grade (8.0%) than 11th-grade (5.8%) and 12th-grade (5.4%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (10.5%) than 12th-grade female (6.5%) students; and higher among 10th-grade female (11.2%) than 11th-grade female (7.8%) and 12th-grade female (6.5%) students. Prevalence of having attempted suicide ranged from 4.8% to 14.3% across state surveys (median: 7.9%) and from 5.1% to 13.3% across local surveys (median: 9.0%) (Table 24).

Suicide Attempt Treated by a Doctor or Nurse

During the 12 months before the survey, 2.0% of students nationwide had made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table 23). Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among female (2.4%) than male (1.5%) students; higher among white female (2.1%) and Hispanic female (3.9%) than white male (0.9%) and Hispanic male (1.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade female (3.1%) than 10th-grade male (1.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among Hispanic (2.9%) than white (1.5%) students; higher among Hispanic female (3.9%) than white female (2.1%) and black female (2.1%) students; and higher among black male (2.5%) and Hispanic male (1.8%) than white male (0.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among 9th-grade (2.3%) than 12th-grade (1.7%) students and higher among 10th-grade female (3.1%) than 11th-grade female (1.7%) students. Prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse ranged from 1.5% to 4.8% across state surveys (median: 2.6%) and from 1.4% to 4.7% across local surveys (median: 2.9%) (Table 24).

Current Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 44.7% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current alcohol use) (Table 35). The prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among 11th-grade male (51.5%) than 11th-grade female (46.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among white (47.3%) and Hispanic (47.6%) than black (34.5%) students; higher among white female (47.1%) and Hispanic female (47.5%) than black female (34.9%) students; and higher among white male (47.4%) and Hispanic male (47.7%) than black male (34.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among 10th-grade (41.8%), 11th-grade (49.0%), and 12th-grade (54.9%) than 9th-grade (35.7%) students; higher among 11th-grade (49.0%) and 12th-grade (54.9%) than 10th-grade (41.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade (54.9%) than 11th-grade (49.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (46.5%) and 12th-grade female (54.2%) than 9th-grade female (37.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (54.2%) than 10th-grade female (42.3%) and 11th-grade female (46.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (41.4%), 11th-grade male (51.5%), and 12th-grade male (55.6%) than 9th-grade male (34.3%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (51.5%) and 12th-grade male (55.6%) than 10th-grade male (41.4%) students. Prevalence of current alcohol use ranged from 17.0% to 48.9% across state surveys (median: 42.9%) and from 22.3% to 44.3% across local surveys (median: 36.4%) (Table 36).

Episodic Heavy Drinking

Nationwide, 26.0% of students had had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row (i.e., within a couple of hours) on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., episodic heavy drinking) (Table 37). Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among male (27.8%) than female (24.1%) students; higher among black male (14.5%) than black female (10.7%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (33.1%) and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 11th-grade female (26.7%) and 12th-grade female (32.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among white (29.8%) and Hispanic (26.8%) than black (12.5%) students; higher among white female (27.9%) and Hispanic female (25.3%) than black female (10.7%) students; and higher among white male (31.8%) and Hispanic male (28.3%) than black male (14.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among 10th-grade (23.7%), 11th-grade (29.9%), and 12th-grade (36.5%) than 9th-grade (17.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade (29.9%) and 12th-grade (36.5%) than 10th-grade (23.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (36.5%) than 11th-grade (29.9%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (21.8%), 11th-grade female (26.7%), and 12th-grade female (32.8%) than 9th-grade female (17.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (32.8%) than 10th-grade female (21.8%) and 11th-grade female (26.7%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (25.5%), 11th-grade male (33.1%), and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 9th-grade male (17.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (33.1%) and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 10th-grade male (25.5%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 11th-grade male (33.1%) students. Prevalence of episodic heavy drinking ranged from 11.7% to 32.7% across state surveys (median: 26.2%) and from 8.7% to 24.6% across local surveys (median: 18.5%)

Current Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 19.7% of students had used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table 39). Overall, the prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among male (22.4%) than female (17.0%) students; higher among white male (22.7%) and bl

ack male (26.0%) than white female (17.0%) and black female (17.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (16.9%), 10th-grade male (22.0%), 11th-grade male (25.2%), and 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 9th-grade female (12.5%), 10th-grade female (16.5%), 11th-grade female (17.5%), and 12th-grade female (22.6%) students, respectively. The prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among black male (26.0%) than Hispanic male (20.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among 10th-grade (19.3%), 11th-grade (21.4%), and 12th-grade (25.1%) than 9th-grade (14.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (25.1%) than 10th-grade (19.3%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (16.5%), 11th-grade female (17.5%), and 12th-grade female (22.6%) than 9th-grade female (12.5%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (22.6%) than 10th-grade female (16.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (22.0%), 11th-grade male (25.2%), and 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 9th-grade male (16.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 10th-grade male (22.0%) students. Prevalence of current marijuana use ranged from 8.7% to 25.1% across state surveys (median: 19.0%) and from 11.4% to 26.8% across local surveys (median: 18.4%) (Table 40).

Current Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 3.3% of students had used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or more times during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table 41). Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among male (4.0%) than female (2.5%) students; higher among Hispanic male (6.7%) than Hispanic female (3.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (6.0%) than 12th-grade female (2.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among white (3.0%) than black (1.1%) students; higher among Hispanic (5.3%) than white (3.0%) and black (1.1%) students; higher among white female (2.6%) and Hispanic female (3.9%) than black female (0.5%) students; higher among white male (3.4%) than black male (1.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (6.7%) than white male (3.4%) and black male (1.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among 12th-grade (4.4%) than 9th-grade (2.7%) and 11th-grade (2.9%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (6.0%) than 9th-grade male (3.0%), 10th-grade male (3.7%), and 11th-grade male (3.5%) students. Prevalence of current cocaine use ranged from 1.7% to 6.6% across state surveys (median: 3.3%) and from 0.5% to 6.2% across local surveys (median: 2.9%) (Table 42).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Including HIV Infection

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 47.8% of students had ever had sexual intercourse (Table 61). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among male (49.8%) than female (45.9%) students; higher among black male (72.6%) and Hispanic male (58.2%) than black female (60.9%) and Hispanic female (45.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (38.1%) than 9th-grade female (27.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among black (66.5%) and Hispanic (52.0%) than white (43.7%) students; higher among black (66.5%) than Hispanic (52.0%) students; higher among black female (60.9%) than white female (43.7%) and Hispanic female (45.8%) students; higher among black male (72.6%) and Hispanic male (58.2%) than white male (43.6%) students; and higher among black male (72.6%) than Hispanic male (58.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among 10th-grade (43.8%), 11th-grade (55.5%), and 12th-grade (64.6%) than 9th-grade (32.8%) students; higher among 11th-grade (55.5%) and 12th-grade (64.6%) than 10th-grade (43.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade (64.6%) than 11th-grade (55.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (41.9%), 11th-grade female (53.6%), and 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 9th-grade female (27.4%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (53.6%) and 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 10th-grade female (41.9%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 11th-grade female (53.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (45.6%), 11th-grade male (57.3%), and 12th-grade male (62.8%) than 9th-grade male (38.1%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (57.3%) and 12th-grade male (62.8%) than 10th-grade male (45.6%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse ranged from 36.2% to 59.5% across state surveys (median: 45.9%) and from 26.4% to 67.1% across local surveys (median: 50.6%) (Table 62).

Had First Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 7.1% of students had had sexual intercourse for the first time before age 13 years (Table 61). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among male (10.1%) than female (4.0%) students; higher among white male (5.7%), black male (26.2%), and Hispanic male (11.9%) than white female (3.1%), black female (6.9%), and Hispanic female (4.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (13.5%), 10th-grade male (9.1%), 11th-grade male (9.9%), and 12th-grade male (6.7%) than 9th-grade female (4.9%), 10th-grade female (4.7%), 11th-grade female (3.4%), and 12th-grade female (2.4%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among black (16.3%) and Hispanic (8.2%) than white (4.4%) students; higher among black (16.3%) than Hispanic (8.2%) students; higher among black female (6.9%) than white female (3.1%) and Hispanic female (4.5%) students; higher among black male (26.2%) and Hispanic male (11.9%) than white male (5.7%) students; and higher among black male (26.2%) than Hispanic male (11.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among 9th-grade (9.2%) than 10th-grade (6.9%), 11th-grade (6.6%), and 12th-grade (4.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (6.9%) than 12th-grade (4.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (4.9%) and 10th-grade female (4.7%) than 12th-grade female (2.4%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (13.5%) than 10th-grade male (9.1%), 11th-grade male (9.9%), and 12th-grade male (6.7%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (9.1%) than 12th-grade male (6.7%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years ranged from 3.0% to 13.3% across state surveys (median: 6.0%) and from 3.9% to 18.6% across local surveys (median: 10.3%) (Table 62).

Had Sexual Intercourse with Four or More Persons During Their Life

Nationwide, 14.9% of students had had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life (Table 63). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among male (17.9%) than female (11.8%) students; higher among black male (37.6%) and Hispanic male (23.3%) than black female (18.1%) and Hispanic female (11.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (11.9%), 10th-grade male (16.7%), 11th-grade male (20.6%), and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 9th-grade female (5.5%), 10th-grade female (10.2%), 11th-grade female (13.1%), and 12th-grade female (20.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among black (27.6%) and Hispanic (17.3%) than white (11.5%) students; higher among black (27.6%) than Hispanic (17.3%) students; higher among black female (18.1%) than white female (10.6%) and Hispanic female (11.3%) students; higher among black male (37.6%) and Hispanic male (23.3%) than white male (12.2%) students; and higher among black male (37.6%) than Hispanic male (23.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among 10th-grade (13.4%), 11th-grade (17.0%), and 12th-grade (22.4%) than 9th-grade (8.7%) students; higher amo

ng 11th-grade (17.0%) and 12th-grade (22.4%) than 10th-grade (13.4%) students; higher among 12th-grade (22.4%) than 11th-grade (17.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (10.2%), 11th-grade female (13.1%), and 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 9th-grade female (5.5%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (13.1%) and 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 10th-grade female (10.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 11th-grade female (13.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (16.7%), 11th-grade male (20.6%), and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 9th-grade male (11.9%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (20.6%) and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 10th-grade male (16.7%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons ranged from 6.1% to 22.5% across state surveys (median: 13.8%) and from 6.5% to 29.6% across local surveys (median: 16.6%) (Table 64).

Currently Sexually Active

Nationwide, 35.0% of students had had sexual intercourse with at least one person during the 3 months before the survey (i.e., currently sexually active) (Table 63). The prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among white female (35.1%) than white male (30.6%) students and higher among 9th-grade male (22.2%) and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 9th-grade female (18.0%) and 12th-grade male (48.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among black (46.0%) and Hispanic (37.4%) than white (32.9%) students; higher among black (46.0%) than Hispanic (37.4%) students; higher among black female (43.5%) than white female (35.1%) and Hispanic female (35.3%) students; higher among black male (48.7%) and Hispanic male (39.6%) than white male (30.6%) students; and higher among black male (48.7%) than Hispanic male (39.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among 10th-grade (30.6%), 11th-grade (41.8%), and 12th-grade (52.6%) than 9th-grade (20.1%) students; higher among 11th-grade (41.8%) and 12th-grade (52.6%) than 10th-grade (30.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade (52.6%) than 11th-grade (41.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (31.8%), 11th-grade female (41.5%), and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 9th-grade female (18.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (41.5%) and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 10th-grade female (31.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 11th-grade female (41.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (29.4%), 11th-grade male (42.0%), and 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 9th-grade male (22.2%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (42.0%) and 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 10th-grade male (29.4%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 11th-grade male (42.0%) students. Prevalence of being currently sexually active ranged from 23.6% to 45.3% across state surveys (median: 34.1%) and from 17.5% to 49.7% across local surveys (median: 36.6%) (Table 64).

Condom Use

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 61.5% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table 65). Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among male (68.5%) than female (54.9%) students; higher among white male (66.4%), black male (74.0%), and Hispanic male (69.9%) than white female (53.9%), black female (60.1%), and Hispanic female (52.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (75.8%), 10th-grade male (73.2%), 11th-grade male (69.3%), and 12th-grade male (59.6%) than 9th-grade female (61.0%), 10th-grade female (59.5%), 11th-grade female (55.1%), and 12th-grade female (49.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among black (67.3%) than white (59.7%) students and higher among black male (74.0%) than white male (66.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among 9th-grade (69.3%) than 11th-grade (62.0%) and 12th-grade (54.2%) students; higher among 10th-grade (66.1%) and 11th-grade (62.0%) than 12th-grade (54.2%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (61.0%) and 10th-grade female (59.5%) than 12th-grade female (49.9%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (75.8%), 10th-grade male (73.2%), and 11th-grade male (69.3%) than 12th-grade male (59.6%) students. Prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse ranged from 54.2% to 69.2% across state surveys (median: 61.5%) and from 57.0% to 74.3% across local surveys (median: 68.1%) (Table 66).

Birth Control Pill Use

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 16.0% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse (Table 65). Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among female (18.7%) than male (13.1%) students; higher among white female (24.0%) and black female (12.1%) than white male (17.0%) and black male (6.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade female (18.9%) than 11th-grade male (11.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (20.8%) than black (9.1%) and Hispanic (9.1%) students; higher among white female (24.0%) than black female (12.1%) and Hispanic female (9.1%) students; and higher among white male (17.0%) than black male (6.3%) and Hispanic male (9.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among 11th-grade (15.0%) and 12th-grade (23.5%) than 9th-grade (8.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (23.5%) than 10th-grade (11.6%) and 11th-grade (15.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (18.9%) and 12th-grade female (25.6%) than 9th-grade female (9.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (25.6%) than 10th-grade female (13.7%) and 11th-grade female (18.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (20.8%) than 9th-grade male (8.3%), 10th-grade male (9.5%), and 11th-grade male (11.0%) students. The prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse ranged from 12.2% to 36.1% across state surveys (median: 18.9%) and from 6.3% to 16.9% across local surveys (median: 9.2%) (Table 66).

Drank Alcohol or Used Drugs Before Last Sexual Intercourse

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 22.5% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse (Table 67). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among male (27.5%) than female (17.7%) students; higher among white male (30.5%), black male (19.8%), and Hispanic male (25.9%) than white female (19.8%), black female (12.9%), and Hispanic female (16.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (28.3%) and 12th-grade male (29.1%) than 11th-grade female (14.8%) and 12th-grade female (17.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (24.8%) and Hispanic (21.4%) than black (16.4%) students; higher among white female (19.8%) than black female (12.9%) students; and higher among white male (30.5%) and Hispanic male (25.9%) than black male (19.8%) students. Prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse ranged from 17.6% to 28.1% across state surveys (median: 22.5%) and from 12.2% to 25.5% across local surveys (median: 17.4%) (Table 68).

Were Taught in School About AIDS or HIV Infection

Nationwide, 89.5% of students had ever been taught in school about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Table 67). Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among female (90.2%) than male (88.7%) stud

ents. Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among white (91.1%) and black (90.3%) than Hispanic (85.0%) students; higher among white female (91.7%) and black female (91.8%) than Hispanic female (84.8%) students; and higher among white male (90.5%) and black male (88.8%) than Hispanic male (85.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among 10th-grade (89.7%), 11th-grade (91.8%), and 12th-grade (90.0%) than 9th-grade (87.1%) students; higher among 11th-grade (91.8%) than 12th-grade (90.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (92.6%) and 12th-grade female (90.9%) than 9th-grade female (87.7%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (89.2%) and 11th-grade male (91.0%) than 9th-grade male (86.4%) students. Prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection ranged from 79.0% to 91.7% across state surveys (median: 87.5%) and from 76.7% to 92.3% across local surveys (median: 85.6%) (Table 68).

Tested for HIV

Nationwide, 12.9% of students had been tested for HIV, not counting tests done when donating blood (Table 69). Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among female (14.8%) than male (11.1%) students; higher among white female (12.0%) and black female (27.2%) than white male (9.4%) and black male (17.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 11th-grade male (11.5%) and 12th-grade male (14.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among black (22.4%) than white (10.7%) and Hispanic (12.7%) students; higher among black female (27.2%) than white female (12.0%) and Hispanic female (13.8%) students; and higher among black male (17.3%) than white male (9.4%) and Hispanic male (11.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among 10th-grade (11.0%), 11th-grade (13.9%), and 12th-grade (18.9%) than 9th-grade (9.1%) students; higher among 12th-grade (18.9%) than 10th-grade (11.0%) and 11th-grade (13.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 9th-grade female (9.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 10th-grade female (11.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 11th-grade female (16.2%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (14.9%) than 9th-grade male (8.3%), 10th-grade male (10.5%), and 11th-grade male (11.5%) students.