The March of Dimes has announced a major fund raising effort to understand and battle premature deliveries.
March of Dimes medical director Dr. Nancy Green told Time magazine that there has been a 27 percent rise in premature births over the last few decades. (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030210-418559,00.html)
At least 50 published studies have shown significantly higher risk of premature birth and low birth weight deliveries among women with a history of abortion.(1-50)
One of the best, a Danish record based study (1), found the risk doubled after just one abortion. Multiple abortions increase the risk even more.
A doubling of risk among an estimated one-fourth of delivering women who have a prior history of abortion would result in a 25 percent rise overall. Other risk factors such as drinking, smoking, and drug use are also elevated by a history of abortion.
According to the March of Dimes, "In 2000, hospital charges for 23,000 prematurity-related infant stays totaled $1.2 billion. The average charge was $58,000 per baby, compared to $4,300 for a typical newborn stay." (http://www.marchofdimes.com/aboutus/791_6775.asp)
Treatment of these children through employer health plans is estimated at $4.7 billion per year. One fifth of these costs may be is attributable to extra cases of prematurity arising from abortion-related morbidity.
Premature birth is the leading cause of neonatal death and is related to increased risk of cerebral palsy, vision and hearing loss, retardation and other lifelong health problems.
The March of Dimes encourages prenatal screening for birth defects that can only be "treated" by abortion yet claims that they are neutral.
50 Significant Studies of Abortion/Prematurity Risk
[50 studies that are at least 95% confident of increased
pre-term birth and/or low birth weight risk from previous
induced abortions; this list, in all probability, is NOT a complete
list of all such studies]:
1 Zhou W, Sorenson HT, Olsen J. Induced Abortion
and Subsequent Pregnancy Duration. Obstetrics &
2 Berkowitz GS. An Epidemiologic Study of Preterm
Delivery. American J Epidemiology 1981;113:81-92
3 Lang JM, Lieberman E, Cohen A. A Comparison
of Risk Factors for Preterm Labor and Term
Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth. Epidemiology
4 Lieberman E, Ryan KJ, Monson RR, Schoenbaum SC.
Risk Factors Accounting For Racial Differences
in the rate of premature birth. NEJM 1987;317:
5*Hillier SL, Nugent RP, Eschenbach DA, Krohn MA,
et al. Association Between Bacterial Vaginosis
And Preterm Delivery Of A Low-Birth-Weight
Infant. NEJM 1995;333:1737-1742
6 Schoenbaum LS, Monson RR. No association between
coffee consumption and adverse outcomes of pregnancy.
7 Mueller-Heubach E, Guzick DS. Evaluation of
risk scoring in a preterm birth prevention
study of indigent patients. Am J Obstetrics
& Gyn 1989;160:829-837
8 Shiono PH, Lebanoff MA. Ethnic Differences
and Very Preterm Delivery. Am J Public Health
9 Pantelakis SN, Papadimitriou GC, Doxiadis SA.
Influence of induced and spontaneous abortions
on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Amer
J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;116:799-805
10 Lumley J. The association between prior spon-
taneous abortion, prior induced abortion and
preterm birth in first singleton births.
Prenat Neonat Med 1998;3:21-24.
11 Van Der Slikke JW, Treffers PE. Influence of
induced abortion on gestational duration in
subsequent pregnancies. BMJ 1978;1:270-272
[>95% confident of preterm risk for gestation
less than 32 weeks]
12 Richardson JA, Dixon G. Effect of legal termin-
ation on subsequent pregnancy. British Med J
13 Pickering RM, Deeks JJ. Risks of Delivery during
20th to the 36th Week of Gestation. Intl. J
14 Koller O, Eikhom SN. Late Sequelae of Induced
Abortion in Primigravidae. Acta Obstet Gynecol
15 Papaevangelou G, Vrettos AS, Papadatos D, Alexiou
C. The Effect of Spontaneous and Induced Abortion
bsp; on Prematurity and Birthweight. The J Obstetrics
and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth. May
16 Bognar Z, Czeizel A. Mortality and Morbidity
Associated with Legal Abortions in Hungary, 1960-
1973. AJPH 1976;66:568-575
17 Martius JA, Steck T, Oehler MK, Wulf K-H. Risk
factors associated with preterm (<37+0 weeks) and
early preterm (<32+0 weeks): univariate and multi-
variate analysis of 106 345 singleton births from
1994 statewide perinatal survey of Bavaria.
European J Obstetrics & Gynecology Reproductive
18 Vasso L-K, Chryssa T-B, Golding J. Previous
obstetric history and subsequent preterm delivery
in Greece. European J Obstetrics & Gynecology
Reproductive Biology 1990;37:99-109
19*Ancel P-V, Saurel-Cubizolles M-J, Renzo GCD,
Papiernik E, Breart G. Very and moderate preterm
births: are the risk factors different? British
J Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1999;106:1162-1170
20 Lumley J. The epidemiology of preterm birth.
Bailliere's Clin Obstet Gynecology. 1993;7(3):
21*Michielutte R, Ernest JM, Moore ML, Meis PJ,
Sharp PC, Wells HB, Buescher PA. A Comparison of
Risk Assessment Models for Term and Preterm Low
Birthweight. Preventive Medicine 1992;21:98-109
22 Grindel B, Lubinski H, Voigt M. Induced abortion
in primigravidae and subsequent pregnancy, with
particular attention of underweight. Zentralbl
23 Kreibich H, Ludwig A. Early and late complications
of abortion in juvenile primigravidae (including
recommended measures). Z Aerztl Fortbild (Jena)
24 Zwahr C, Voigt M, Kunz L, et al. Relationships
between interruption abortion, and premature birth
and low birth weight. Zentrabl Gynaekol 1980;102:
25 Pickering RM, Forbes J. Risk of preterm delivery
and small-for-gestational age infants following
abortion: a population study. British J Obstet-
rics and Gynecology 1985;92:1106-1112
26 Obel E, et al. Pregnancy Complications Following
Legally Induced Abortion With Special Reference to
Abortion Technique. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
27 Levin A, Schoenbaum S, Monson R, Stubblefield P,
Ryan K. Association of Abortion With Subsequent
Pregnancy Loss. JAMA 1980;243(24):2495-2499
28 Legrillo V. Quickenton P, Therriault GD, et al.
Effect of induced abortion on subsequent reproductive
function. Final report to NICHD. Albany, NY: New
York State Health Department, 1980.
29 World Health Organization Task Force on the Sequelae
of Abortion. Gestation, birthweight and spontaneous
abortion. Lancet 1979;1:142-145.
30 Ratten G et al. Effect of Abortion on Maturity of
Subsequent Pregnancy. Med J Australia June 1979:
31 Roht LH, Aoyama H, Leinen GE, et al. The association
of multiple induced abortions with subsequent
prematurity and spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet
Gynaecol Jpn 1976;23:140-145
32 Harlap S, Davies AM. Late sequelae of induced abortion:
Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor. Amer
J Epidemiology 1975;102:219-224
33 Seidman DS, Ever-Hadani P, Slater PE, Harlap S, et al.
Child-bearing after induced abortion: reassessment of
risk. J Epidemiology Community Health 1988;42:294-298
34 Henriet L, Kaminski M. Impact of induced abortions on
subsequent pregnancy outcome: the 1995 French national
perinatal survey. British J Obstetrics Gynaecology
35 Miltenyi K. On the effects of induced abortion. Demografia
36 Drac P, Nekvasilova Z. Premature termination of pregnancy
after previous interruption of pregnancy. Cesk Gynekol
37 Mocsary P, Csapo AI. Effect of menstrual induction on
prematurity rate. Lancet 1978;1:1159-1160
38 Furusawa Y, Koya Y. The Influence of artificial abortion
on delivery. In: Koya Y, ed. Harmful effects of induced
abortion. Tokyo: Family Planning Federation of Japan,
39 Lerner RC, Varma AO. Prospective study of the outcome of
pregnancy subsequent to previous induced abortion. Final
report, Contract no. (N01-HD-62803). New York: Downstate
Medical Center, SUNY, January 1981.
40 Lean TH, Hogue CJR, Wood J. Low birth weight after induced
abortion in Singapore, Presented at the 105th Annual Meeting
of the Americal Public Health Association, Washington DC,
Oct. 31, 1977
41 Barsy G, Sarkany J. Impact of induced abortion on the birth
rate and infant mortality. Demografia 1963;6:427-467
k O, Bergstrom R. Outcome of delivery subsequent to
vacuum aspiration abortion in nulliparous women. Acta
Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61:415-429
43*Zhang J, Savitz DA. Preterm Birth Subtypes among Blacks and
Whites. Epidemiology 1992;3:428-433
44 Slater PE, Davies AM, Harlap S. The Effect of Abortion Method
on the Outcome of Subsequent Pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1981;28:
45 World Health Organization. Special Programme of Research,
Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction:
Seventh Annual Report, Geneva, Nov. 1978.
46 Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Perinatalishalazons.
Budapest: Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 1972
47 Czeizel A, Bognar Z, Tusnady G, et al. Changes in mean birth
weight and proportion of low-weight births in Hungary. Br J
Prev Soc Med 1970;24:146-153
48 Lumley J. Very low birth-weight (less than 1500g) and previous
induced abortion: Victoria 1982-1983. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynecol
+49 Puyenbroek J, Stolte L. The relationship between spontaneous
and induced abortions and the occurrence of second-trimester
abortion in subsequent pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol
Reprod Biol 1983;14:299-309 [this is the only study in
this complete list that uses second-trimester abortion
as a surrogate for PTB]
50 Khalil AK, El-Amrawy SM, Ibrahim AG, et al. Pattern of growth
and development of premature children at the age of two and
three years in Alexandria, Egypt; Eastern Mediterranean Health
The list of 50 studies showing abortion's relationship to premature birth and low birth rate deliveries
[compiled by Brent Rooney] [http://www.vcn.bc.ca/~whatsup/APB-Major.html].
[The Elliot Institute News, Email Publication, Vol.2, No. 3
Feb. 6, 2003 http://www.AfterAbortion.Info]
* studies that included spontaneous and induced abortions but did not report PB/LBW risk separately for each