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This cohort study examined the HPV health care costs in the USA, by using 1997-2002 records form 103,476 women enrolled in the Kaiser health plan… This study provided the “first direct estimates of both individual and population level costs of cervical human papillomavirus-related disease…Routine cervical cancer screening comprises nearly two thirds of total annual cervical human papillomavirus-related health care costs, with 10% of expenditures dedicated to the treatment of invasive cervical cancer, 17% to the management of cervical pre-cancers, and 9% to dealing with false-positive Papanicolaou test results.” [Thanks to Dr. Perry for this report: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2004) 191, 114-20, “The health care costs of cervical human papillomavirus-related disease”, Insinga, Glass MD, Rush RN; Dept of Pop Health Sciences, Univ of WI-Madison, Ctr for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente NW, Portland OR]