NEW! Abortion Access and Risky Sex Among Teens: Parental Involvement Laws and STDs/STIs
New STD Infection Rates “4 times higher among those who used condoms during their last vaginal intercourse”: M. genitalium Surpasses Gonorrhea among Young Adults Reports AJPH
Syphilis Rate Rises in US Homosexual and Bisexual Men but Declines in General Population
FREE Risk Assessment Tool to Help Reduce 19 Million Annual USA STD Cases…
Abortion Access and Risky Sex Among Teens: Parental Involvement Laws and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Laws requiring minors to seek parental consent or to notify a parent prior to obtaining an abortion raise the cost of risky sex for teenagers.
Assuming choices to engage in risky sex are made rationally, parental involvement laws should lead to less risky sex among teens, either because of a reduction of sexual activity altogether or because teens will be more fastidious in the use of birth control ex ante.
Using gonorrhea rates among older women to control for unobserved heterogeneity across states, our results indicate that the enactment of parental involvement laws significantly reduces risky sexual activity among teenage girls.
We estimate reductions in gonorrhea rates of 20% for Hispanics and 12% for whites. Although we find a relatively small reduction in rates for black girls, it is not statistically significant. We speculate that the racial heterogeneity has to do with differences in family structure across races.
[Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization Advance Access published online on September 4, 2007
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, doi:10.1093/jleo/ewm041
Jonathan Klick* Thomas Stratmann** Florida State UniversityGeorge Mason University * College of Law, Florida State University. Email: [email protected] ** Department of Economics, George Mason University. Email: [email protected]]
Mycoplasma genitalium Among Young Adults in the United States: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection, AJPH, 6/07
Lisa E. Manhart, PhD, King K. Holmes, MD, PhD, James P. Hughes, PhD, Laura S. Houston, MS and Patricia A. Totten, PhD
Objectives. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States.
Methods. Urine specimens from 1714 women and 1218 men who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=14322) were tested for M genitalium. Poststratification sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates.
Results. The prevalence of M genitalium was 1.0% compared with 0.4%, 4.2%, and 2.3% for gonococcal, chlamydial, and trichomonal infections, respectively. No M genitalium–positive individuals reported symptoms of discharge. M genitalium prevalence among those who reported vaginal intercourse was 1.1% compared with 0.05% among those who did not. In multivariate analyses, M genitalium prevalence was 11 times higher among respondents who reported living with a sexual partner, 7 times higher among Blacks, and 4 times higher among those who used condoms during their last vaginal intercourse. Prevalence of M genitalium increased by 10% for each additional sexual partner.
Conclusions. M genitalium was more prevalent than Neisseria gonorrhoeae but less prevalent than Chlamydia trachomatis, and it was strongly associated with sexual activity.
Lisa E. Manhart is with the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle. King K. Holmes is with the Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle. James P. Hughes is with the Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle. Laura S. Houston and Patricia A. Totten are with the Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle. All authors are with the Center for AIDS and STDs, University of Washington, Seattle. Correspondence: Requests for reprints should be sent to Lisa E. Manhart, PhD, University of Washington Center for AIDS and STD, 325 9th Ave, Box 359931, Seattle, WA 98104–2499.
AJPH First Look, published online ahead of print Apr 26, 2007
June 2007, Vol 97, No. 6 | American Journal of Public Health 1118-1125
© 2007 American Public Health Association
New STD Infection Rates “4 times higher among those who used condoms during their last vaginal intercourse”: M. Genitalium Surpasses Gonorrhea among Young Adults Reports AJPH
A new study reveals that a relatively new sexually transmitted disease (STD) has surpassed gonorrhea in prevalence among sexually active young adults in the United States.
The disease, Mycoplasma genitalium, was first identified back in the 1980s as the smallest known bacterium in existence. Now researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle found that 1.0 percent of the several thousand participants in their study were infected with M. genitalium, whereas gonorrhea was found in a comparatively small 0.4 percent. Chlamydia infection rates were 4.2 percent.
The researchers also found that M. genitalium’s prevalence of infection, according to the study abstract, is “11 times higher among respondents who reported living with a sexual partner" and "7 times higher among Blacks.”
Notably, the study also found that infection rates were “4 times higher among those who used condoms during their last vaginal intercourse.”
The findings published in the American Journal of Public Health were based on tests of 1714 women and 1218 men between the ages of 18 and 27 years participating in Wave III of the
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.
The disease can cause inflammation of the urethra in men, and inflammation of the cervix and uterine lining in women, which can lead to infertility. Many of the cases, however, are asymptomatic, like Chlamydia infections.
The CDC released a study in the Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases [6 July 2006, www.cdc.gov/eid, vol. 12, no.7], "Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis" which shows significant failure rates in treating this STD.
Other studies have shown M. genitalium to be associated with or a possible cause of cases of epididymoorchitis (inflammation of the testis and epididymis), neonatal (newborn) disease and reactive arthritis.
“This shows demonstrably that comprehensive sex-education is anything but comprehensive,” Matt Barber [Policy Director for Cultural Issues for Concerned Women for America]. “The evidence would indicate it is contributing to sexually transmitted diseases.” Instead, he pointed out, after 40 years of sex-education in the US, sexual promiscuity has skyrocketed, leaving approximately 1 in every 4 Americans currently with an STD.
The study, Barber noted, also underscored the fact that condoms are far from the “divine answer dreamed by the left" to solve problems associated with sexual promiscuity: “By pressing upon children that condom is a fail proof safety net … they are encouraging kids to walk a paper thin latex light rope…The only way we know to guarantee that you’re not going to catch all these kinds of diseases [and suffer all their consequences] is by abstinence.”
Related: HPV Condom Study Shows The Failure of Condom Education —
Study: Even with 100 % Condom Use 30% Still Contract Potentially Deadly — HPV Virus http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2006/jun/06062701.html
Medical Journalist Says Reliance on Condoms Spreads HIV/AIDS — http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2006/jun/06062304.html
[June 12, 2007, Peter J. Smith, www.lifesite.net/ldn/2007/jun/07061205.html, Seattle]
STOPPING CHLAMYDIA: MORE SCREENING IS NOT THE ANSWER. A new report of a survey of people between ages 14 – 39 found sexually active teen girls bear an "unacceptably high burden" of chlamydia. Although gonorrhea was less prevalent, half of those with the STD were co-infected with chlamydia.
Condoms do not offer reliable protection against chlamydia, which may explain the current recommendations to screen all sexually active females under 25 and rescreen regularly. What these young women (and their boy friends) need instead is the message that they can make a lifestyle change–saving sex for marriage to a faithful, uninfected spouse—that means no risk at all of STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. [“Chlamydia common among young women and men,” Reuters, 07-16-07; Abstinence Clearinghouse E-Mail Update 07/19/07]
SYPHILIS IN MSM. A study to be published in the upcoming June edition of the American Journal of Public Health has researchers alarmed about growing rates of syphilis among homosexual and bisexual men.
The overall number of syphilis cases in the United States fell from 50,578 in 1990 to 7,177 in 2003.
Nevertheless, homosexual men have seen their rates rise significantly in this decade. "The entire nation was caught unawares," said study lead author James Heffelfinger, M.D., a medical epidemiologist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A March 2007 study demonstrated that practicing homosexual men with HIV are 90 times more likely than the general population to develop anal cancer.
Other studies have found that in addition to eating disorders, homosexuals experience increased incidences of sexually transmitted diseases, cancer, psychological problems and addiction problems. Related: http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2007/mar/07032205.html [26Apr07, John-Henry Westen, D.C., LifeSiteNews.com]
STD Risk Assessment Tool. Powerful new program aimed at reducing the 19 million new cases of HPV, AIDS and other STDs.
Austin, Texas—May 1, 2007— A new tool has been launched in the fight against HPV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
The Medical Institute has launched the STD Wizard, an innovative online assessment tool aimed at increasing prevention and early detection of STDs.
More than 65 million Americans are currently living with an STD and 19 million new infections occur every year.
Although most people with sexually transmitted infections have no symptoms, they can still spread these infections. Additionally, these individuals are often unaware that they have an infection, or if they do know, are too embarrassed to seek treatment.
“The STD Wizard is a powerful web-based risk assessment tool that can help reduce the estimated 19 million new infections that occur each year, half of which are among young people under the age of 25,” said The Medical Institute national spokesperson, Freda Bush, M.D. “Whether it’s HPV or some other infection, our greatest advantage is early detection and awareness. The STD Wizard will help people understand the risks associated with their sexual activities and will reduce the spread of disease.”
The STD Wizard is a comprehensive assessment tool developed by The Medical Institute’s doctors and scientists. The Wizard guides users through an interactive question-and-answer process focused on past and current sexual behavior. Analysis and recommendations are based on up-to-date research and take into account such factors as age, gender and geographic location.
“Embarrassment or lack of access to healthcare often prevents young people from seeking out information and advice about exp
osure to STDs,” said The Medical Institute President & CEO, Gary Rose, M.D.
“The STD Wizard promotes testing and protects the individual’s privacy, while providing a thorough risk assessment and a recommended course of action. As we continue to debate the use of STD-related vaccinations for children, the STD Wizard offers a well-timed resource to educate and guide those at greatest risk.”
Responses are completely anonymous and confidential. Once the assessment is completed, the STD Wizard identifies specific risk factors and provides recommended action steps that can be printed and shared with a physician, healthcare provider or partner.
The STD Wizard is free, takes about five minutes to complete and can be accessed over the Internet at http://www.stdwizard.org.
The Medical Institute is a nonprofit (501c3) that empowers safe, healthy living by communicating objective and scientific sexual health information. For more information visit www.medinstitute.org.
Funding: This project was made possible through a cooperative agreement between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research (APTR), award number TS-1052.