Hippocratic Oath (Original, C. 400 B.C.)

I swear by Apollo, the Physician, and Aesculapius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this stipulation: To hold the one who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art — if they desire to learn it — without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but to no one else. I will follow that method of treatment which, according to my ability and judgement, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. [I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.] I will neither give a deadly drug to any one if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Furthermore, I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy [instrument to produce abortion]. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from...