Contraceptive Agents: Estrogens / Progestins

[the following text comes from "Estrogens and Progestins", "Contraceptive Agents" and "Agents Used to Treat Infertility", AMA Drug Evaluations, 5th Ed., AMA (American Medical Association), 1983; "Estrogens, Progestagens, Oral Contraceptives", Modern Pharmacology, Craig and Stitzel, Little, Brown, and Company, 1982] Although these textbooks are dated, one may find it quite interesting and telling to learn of the amount of information that was available 20 years ago… "In postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, changes in hepatic excretory function will result in greater cholesterol saturation in the bile, thus predisposing to gallstone formation. The risk of gallbladder surgery is increased 2.5 times in these women. Estrogens should not be given to patients with severe acute liver disease…It has been reported that the associated risk of developing angina pectoris almost doubled in women given postmenopausal estrogen therapy, although mortality was not increased (Ryan 1976; Gordon et al, 1978)…Estrogens are generally not administered to patients with migraine…Synthetic progestins should not be administered during pregnancy because of their teratogenic potential…The administration of any estrogen is contraindicated during pregnancy…There are reports of structural and functional abnormalities of the female reproductive tract resulting from in utero exposure to DES…Postpuberal girls whose mothers received DES during pregnancy should be examined yearly for early detection of abnormalities…in several studies, an increase in the risk of endometrial carcinoma has been associated with estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women…Endometrial cancer associated with estrogen therapy is usually an early stage malignancy. The latent period between estrogen administration and development of cancer is relatively short (three to six years) and the risk of cancer is reduced after an estrogen-free interval of two years...